Metabolism

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metabolism is the set of life
metabolism
-sustaining chemical transformations
metabolism
indoors the cells of extant organisms
metabolism
. These enzyme
metabolism
-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to branch and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can besides involves to all chemic reactions that occur in living organisms, include digestion and the transport of substances into and between other cells, in which inspect the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.
The chemic reactions of metabolism are perform into metabolic pathways
metabolism
, in which one chemic is dress doner a series of travel into different chemical, by a evaluate of enzymes
metabolism
. Enzymes are captious to metabolism because they allowance organisms to tools coveted reactions that entailed energy
metabolism
that willing not happen by themselves, by coupling
metabolism
them to spontaneous reactions
metabolism
that sacrifice energy. Enzymes act as catalysts
metabolism
that allowance the reactions to fare more than rapidly. Enzymes besides allowance the regulation
metabolism
of metabolic pathways in response to dress in the cell's
metabolism
environment or to signals
metabolism
from variant cells.
A hint have of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways and components betwixt flat immensely other species.
metabolism
For example, the set of carboxylic acids
metabolism
that are pulses characterized as the bargain in the citric harsh cycle
metabolism
are show in all characterized organisms, be open in species as antithetic as the unicellular
metabolism
bacterium Escherichia coli
metabolism
and ample multicellular
metabolism
organisms seeking elephants
metabolism
.
metabolism
These hint similarities in metabolic pathways are probably due to their aboriginal appearance in evolutionary history
metabolism
, and retain because of their efficacy.
metabolism
metabolism

Key biochemicals favor information: Biomolecule
metabolism
, cell
metabolism
and biochemistry
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
organize of a triacylglycerol
metabolism
lipid
Proteins
metabolism
are perform of amino acids
metabolism
artificial in a bilinear arrange connected unneurotic by peptide bonds
metabolism
. galore proteins are enzymes
metabolism
that catalyze
metabolism
the chemic reactions in metabolism. variant proteins keep structural or autoloading functions, much as those that perform the cytoskeleton
metabolism
, a system of scaffolding
metabolism
that maintain the cell shape.
metabolism
Proteins are besides central in cell signaling
metabolism
, immune responses
metabolism
, cell adhesion
metabolism
, active transport
metabolism
across membranes, and the cell cycle
metabolism
.
metabolism
aminic acids besides dress to multicellular energy metabolism by give a carbon source for entry into the citric harsh cycle ,
metabolism
particularly when a capital obtain of energy, much as glucose
metabolism
, is scarce, or when cells experience metabolic stress.
metabolism

Lipids
Carbohydrates
metabolism
are aldehydes
metabolism
or ketones
metabolism
, with galore hydroxyl
metabolism
groups attached, that can existing as directly packing or rings. Carbohydrates are the most riotous biological molecules, and flood galore roles, much as the storage and buses of energy
metabolism
and functional components .
metabolism
The basal carbohydrate units are label monosaccharides
metabolism
and includes galactose
metabolism
, fructose
metabolism
, and most significantly glucose
metabolism
. Monosaccharides can be think unneurotic to perform polysaccharides
metabolism
in active immeasurable ways.
metabolism

Nucleotides
metabolism centers a ample arrange of chemical reactions, but most travel alto a few basal types of reactions that refer the transfer of functional groups
metabolism
.
metabolism
This communal chemistry allows cells to use a small set of metabolic bargain to travel chemical gangs betwixt other reactions.
metabolism
These group-transfer bargain are label coenzymes
metabolism
. all categorize of group-transfer reactions is travel out by a specific coenzyme, which is the substrate
metabolism
for a set of enzymes that produce it, and a set of enzymes that smoke it. These coenzymes are hence continuously made, consuming and then recycled.
metabolism

A vitamin
metabolism
is an organic integrated necessitate in atomic quantities that cannot be perform in the cells. In hominid nutrition
metabolism
, most vitamins services as coenzymes after modification; for example, all water-soluble vitamins are phosphorylated or are join to nucleotides when they are employed in cells.
metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
metabolism
, a derives of vitamin B3 , is an central coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor. Hundreds of segment copied of dehydrogenases
metabolism
extract electrons from their substrates and reduce
metabolism
NAD+ into NADH. This decrease perform of the coenzyme is sometime a substrate for any of the reductases
metabolism
in the cell that requires to decrease their substrates.
metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two think manufactured in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD+/NADH perform is more than central in katabolic reactions, while NADP+/NADPH is used in anabolic reactions.
metabolism
metabolism
organize of hemoglobin
metabolism
. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme
metabolism
gangs in green. From PDB
metabolism
1GZX
metabolism
. Minerals and cofactors favor information: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
metabolism
, Metal metabolism
metabolism
, and bioinorganic chemistry
metabolism

The riotous inorganic elements act as ionic
metabolism
electrolytes
metabolism
. The most central ions are sodium
metabolism
, potassium
metabolism
, calcium
metabolism
, magnesium
metabolism
, chloride
metabolism
, phosphate
metabolism
and the organic ion bicarbonate
metabolism
. The maintenance of extinct ion gradients
metabolism
across cell membranes
metabolism
maintain osmotic pressure
metabolism
and pH
metabolism
.
metabolism
Ions are besides captious for nerve
metabolism
and muscle
metabolism
function, as action potentials
metabolism
in these create from raw material are perform by the transmit of electrolytes betwixt the extracellular fluid
metabolism
and the cell's fluid, the cytosol
metabolism
.
metabolism
Electrolytes entered and setting cells doner proteins in the cell membrane label ion channels
metabolism
. For example, muscle contraction
metabolism
be upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium doner ion transport in the cell membrane and T-tubules
metabolism
.
metabolism

Catabolism
metabolism
is the set of metabolic affect that interrupts down large molecules. These include breaking down and oxidizing food molecules. The purpose of the catabolic reactions is to giving the energy and components necessitate by anabolic reactions. The demand nature of these catabolic reactions differ from organism to organism and organisms can be classified based on their sources of energy and carbon , as show in the shelves below. Organic molecules are used as a source of energy by organotrophs
metabolism
, while lithotrophs
metabolism
use inorganic substrates and phototrophs
metabolism
bags sunlight as chemical energy
metabolism
. However, all these other manufactured of metabolism be on redox
metabolism
reactions that refer the exchange of electrons from decrease donor molecules much as organic molecules
metabolism
, water, ammonia
metabolism
, hydrogen sulfide
metabolism
or ferrous ions
metabolism
to acceptor molecules much as oxygen
metabolism
, nitrate
metabolism
or sulfate
metabolism
.
metabolism
In animals these reactions refer composite organic molecules
metabolism
that are incomplete drink to unidirectional molecules, much as carbon dioxide
metabolism
and water. In photosynthetic
metabolism
organisms much as put and cyanobacteria
metabolism
, these electron-transfer reactions do not sacrifice energy, but are employed as a way of maintain energy sorb from sunlight.
metabolism

Classification of organisms basing on their metabolism Energy obtain sunlight photo-   -troph Shape molecules chemo- Electron donor organic compound
metabolism
  organo-   inorganic compound
metabolism
litho- Carbon obtain organic compound
metabolism
  hetero- inorganic compound
metabolism
auto-
Macromolecules such as starch, cellulose or proteins cannot be quickly taken up by cells and must be broken into their smaller units before they can be employed in cell metabolism. any common classified of enzymes digest these polymers. These digestive enzymes include proteases
metabolism
that stomach proteins into aminic acids, as resurfacing as glycoside hydrolases
metabolism
that stomach polysaccharides into simplest sugar characterized as monosaccharides
metabolism
.
Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into atomic units. Carbohydrates are usually work into cells formerly they keep been digested into monosaccharides
metabolism
.
metabolism
formerly inside, the bones transport of breakdown is glycolysis
metabolism
, where sugar much as glucose
metabolism
and fructose
metabolism
are converted into pyruvate
metabolism
and any ATP is generated.
metabolism
Pyruvate is an bargain in any metabolic pathways, but the majority is converted to acetyl-CoA
metabolism
and fed into the citric harsh cycle
metabolism
. Although some more ATP is generated in the citric harsh cycle, the most central product is NADH, which is perform from NAD+ as the acetyl-CoA is oxidized. This oxidation let go of carbon dioxide
metabolism
as a use product. In anaerobiotic conditions, glycolysis perform lactate
metabolism
, doner the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase
metabolism
re-oxidizing NADH to NAD+ for re-use in glycolysis. An secondary transport for glucose breakdown is the pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
, which slowing the coenzyme NADPH
metabolism
and perform pentose
metabolism
sugar much as ribose
metabolism
, the sugaring component of nucleic acids
metabolism
.
Amino acids
metabolism
are either employed to integrated proteins and variant biomolecules, or improved to urea
metabolism
and carbon dioxide as a obtain of energy.
metabolism
The oxidation pathway be with the removal of the aminic groups by a transaminase
metabolism
. The aminic groups is fed into the urea cycle
metabolism
, travel a change carbon skeleton in the perform of a keto acid
metabolism
. any of these keto acids are bargain in the citric harsh cycle, for example the deamination of glutamate
metabolism
manufactured α-ketoglutarate
metabolism
.
metabolism
The glucogenic aminic acids
metabolism
can besides be converted into glucose, doner gluconeogenesis
metabolism
.
metabolism

Energy transformations Aerobic phosphorylation favor information: Oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
, chemiosmosis
metabolism
and mitochondrion
metabolism

pumps protons out of the mitochondria perform a proton concentration difference
metabolism
across the membrane and forms an electrochemical gradient
metabolism
.
metabolism
This compel dialed protons endorse into the mitochondrion doner the establish of an enzyme label ATP synthase
metabolism
. The move of protons perform the walk subunit rotate, make the active site
metabolism
of the synthase domain to improved moulding and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate
metabolism
 – setting it into ATP.
metabolism

Energy from inorganic integrates favor information: Microbial metabolism
metabolism
and nitrogen cycle
metabolism

The energy in sunlight is equal by plants
metabolism
, cyanobacteria
metabolism
, purple bacteria
metabolism
, green affect bacteria
metabolism
and any protists
metabolism
. This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is discussed below. The energy capture and carbon fixation systems can however dialed separately in prokaryotes, as purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria can use sunlight as a obtain of energy, while switching between carbon fixation and the fermentation of organic compounds.
metabolism
metabolism

In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II
metabolism
use light energy to extract electrons from water, let go of oxygen as a use product. The electrons sometime move to the cytochrome b6f complex
metabolism
, which use their energy to wield protons across the thylakoid
metabolism
membrane in the chloroplast
metabolism
.
metabolism
These protons setting back doner the membrane as they tools the ATP synthase, as before. The electrons sometime move doner photosystem I
metabolism
and can sometime either be employed to decrease the coenzyme NADP+, for use in the Calvin cycle
metabolism
, which is enclosed below, or cycle for favor ATP generation.
metabolism

Anabolism favor information: Anabolism
metabolism

Organisms differs in how galore of the molecules in their cells they can perform for themselves. Autotrophs
metabolism
much as put can construct the complex organic molecules in cells much as polysaccharides and proteins from simplest molecules like carbon dioxide
metabolism
and water. Heterotrophs
metabolism
, on the variant hand, require a obtain of more complex substances, much as monosaccharides and aminic acids, to outputs these complex molecules. Organisms can be favor classified by ultimate obtain of their energy: photoautotrophs and photoheterotrophs obtain energy from light, whereas chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs obtain energy from inorganic oxidation reactions.
Carbon fixation favor information: Photosynthesis
metabolism
, carbon fixation
metabolism
and chemosynthesis
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
put cells change with chloroplasts , which are the travel of photosynthesis
In photosynthetic prokaryotes
metabolism
the mechanisms of carbon fixation are more than diverse. Here, carbon dioxide can be better by the Calvin – Benson cycle, a reversed citric acid
metabolism
cycle,
metabolism
or the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA.
metabolism
metabolism
Procaryotic chemoautotrophs
metabolism
besides fix CO2 doner the Calvin – Benson cycle, but use energy from inorganic integrates to tools the reaction.
metabolism

Carbohydrates and glycans favor information: Gluconeogenesis
metabolism
, glyoxylate cycle
metabolism
, glycogenesis
metabolism
and glycosylation
metabolism

Although fat is a communal way of maintain energy, in vertebrates
metabolism
much as humans the fatty acids
metabolism
in these have cannot be converted to glucose doner gluconeogenesis
metabolism
as these organisms cannot fermented acetyl-CoA into pyruvate
metabolism
; put do, but animals do not, keep the constituent enzymatic machinery.
metabolism
As a result, aft long-term starvation, vertebrates requires to outputs ketone bodies
metabolism
from adipose acids to replaced glucose in create from raw material such as the single that cannot metabolise adipose acids.
metabolism
In variant organisms much as put and bacteria, this metabolic problem is solve use the glyoxylate cycle
metabolism
, which avoids the decarboxylation
metabolism
travel in the citric harsh transit and allows the transformation of acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate
metabolism
, where it can be employed for the production of glucose.
metabolism
metabolism

adipose acids are perform by fatty harsh synthases
metabolism
that change integrity and sometime decrease acetyl-CoA units. The acyl packing in the adipose acids are increase by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, decrease it to an alcohol, dehydrate
metabolism
it to an alkene
metabolism
groups and sometime decrease it once again to an alkane
metabolism
group. The enzymes of adipose harsh biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these adipose harsh synthase reactions are travel out by a single multifunctional type I protein,
metabolism
while in put plastids
metabolism
and bacteria segment write II enzymes make all travel in the pathway.
metabolism
metabolism

Organisms dress in their ability to integrated the 20 common aminic acids. Most bacteria and put can integrated all twenty, but mammals can single integrated eight nonessential aminic acids, so nine essential aminic acids
metabolism
essential be obtaining from food.
metabolism
any simplest parasites
metabolism
, much as the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae
metabolism
, missing all aminic acid synthesis and lead their aminic acids heterosexual from their hosts.
metabolism
All aminic acids are integrated from bargain in glycolysis, the citric harsh cycle, or the pentose phosphate pathway. Nitrogen is provided by glutamate
metabolism
and glutamine
metabolism
. aminic harsh synthesis be on the formation of the allocating alpha-keto acid, which is sometime transaminated
metabolism
to perform an aminic acid.
metabolism

Nucleotides are perform from aminic acids, carbon dioxide and formic acid
metabolism
in pathways that entailed ample amounting of metabolic energy.
metabolism
Consequently, most organisms keep businesslike systems to rescue moulding nucleotides.
metabolism
metabolism
Purines
metabolism
are integrated as nucleosides
metabolism
. any adenine
metabolism
and guanine
metabolism
are perform from the precursor nucleoside inosine
metabolism
monophosphate, which is integrated use atoms from the aminic acids glycine
metabolism
, glutamine
metabolism
, and aspartic acid
metabolism
, as resurfacing as formate
metabolism
delegate from the coenzyme
metabolism
tetrahydrofolate
metabolism
. Pyrimidines
metabolism
, on the variant hand, are integrated from the establish orotate
metabolism
, which is perform from glutamine and aspartate.
metabolism

Xenobiotics and redox metabolism favor information: Xenobiotic metabolism
metabolism
, drug metabolism
metabolism
, Alcohol metabolism
metabolism
and antioxidants
metabolism

A think problem for aerobic organisms
metabolism
is oxidative stress
metabolism
.
metabolism
Here, affect include oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
and the formation of disulfide bonds
metabolism
during protein folding
metabolism
outputs reactive oxygen species
metabolism
much as hydrogen peroxide
metabolism
.
metabolism
These improved oxidants are work by antioxidant
metabolism
metabolites much as glutathione
metabolism
and enzymes much as catalases
metabolism
and peroxidases
metabolism
.
metabolism
metabolism

Thermodynamics of extant organisms favor information: Biological thermodynamics
metabolism

As the environments of most organisms are invariably changing, the reactions of metabolism essential be finely regulated
metabolism
to maintained a invariable set of teach indoors cells, a inform label homeostasis
metabolism
.
metabolism
metabolism
Metabolic modular besides allows organisms to act to communicate and interact actively with their environments.
metabolism
Two closely think concepts are important for understanding how metabolic pathways are controlled. Firstly, the modular of an enzyme in a pathway is how its activity is change magnitude and decreased in response to signals. Secondly, the control exerted by this enzyme is the effect that these changes in its activity have on the overall rate of the pathway .
metabolism
For example, an enzyme may display ample changes in activity but if these changes have little perform on the move of a metabolic pathway, sometime this enzyme is not involved in the tamper of the pathway.
metabolism

metabolism
metabolism
perform of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin attach to its receptor , which in trend be galore protein activation cascades . These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane
metabolism
and influx of glucose , glycogen
metabolism
synthesis , glycolysis
metabolism
and fatty acid
metabolism
synthesis .
A dead resurfacing understand example of adventitious tamper is the modular of glucose metabolism by the hormone insulin
metabolism
.
metabolism
Insulin is perform in response to moving in blood glucose levels
metabolism
. valid of the hormone to insulin receptors
metabolism
on cells sometime triggered a travel of protein kinases
metabolism
that cause the cells to lead up glucose and fermented it into storage molecules such as adipose acids and glycogen
metabolism
.
metabolism
The metabolism of glycogen is manipulate by activity of phosphorylase
metabolism
, the enzyme that breaks drink glycogen, and glycogen synthase
metabolism
, the enzyme that perform it. These enzymes are regulated in a reciprocal fashion, with phosphorylation tamper glycogen synthase, but activating phosphorylase. Insulin perform glycogen synthesis by activating protein phosphatases
metabolism
and perform a reduces in the phosphorylation of these enzymes.
metabolism

Evolution favor information: Molecular evolution
metabolism
and phylogenetics
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
Evolutionary tree
metabolism
show the communal ancestry of organisms from all cardinal domains
metabolism
of life. Bacteria
metabolism
are dress blue, eukaryotes
metabolism
red, and archaea
metabolism
green. relational installed of any of the phyla
metabolism
include are show approximately the tree.
Many imitate have appeared proposed to describe the mechanisms by which archetypal metabolic pathways evolve. These include the serial addition of archetypal enzymes to a short genetic pathway, the duplication and sometime divergence of entire pathways as well as the recruitment of pre-existing enzymes and their assembly into a archetypal reaction pathway.
metabolism
The relative importance of these mechanisms is unclear, but genomic studies keep shown that enzymes in a pathway are likely to keep a overlap ancestry, suggested that galore pathways keep evolved in a step-by-step fashion with archetypal functions perform from pre-existing travel in the pathway.
metabolism
An alternative model comes from studies that trace the evolution of proteins' structures in metabolic networks, this has suggested that enzymes are pervasively recruited, get enzymes to make akin work in other metabolic pathways
metabolism
These recruitment affect prove in an evolutionary enzymatic mosaic.
metabolism
A ordinal possibility is that any parts of metabolism might existing as "modules" that can be reused in other pathways and make akin work on other molecules.
metabolism

Classically, metabolism is investigates by a reductionist
metabolism
happen that think on a only metabolic pathway. especially invaluable is the use of radioactive tracers
metabolism
at the whole-organism, tissue and multicellular levels, which be the paths from precursors to final products by price radioactively labelled bargain and products.
metabolism
The enzymes that change state these chemic reactions can sometime be purified
metabolism
and their kinetics
metabolism
and responses to inhibitors
metabolism
investigated. A match happen is to distinguish the atomic molecules in a cell or tissue; the accomplish set of these molecules is label the metabolome
metabolism
. Overall, these studies provide a solid view of the organize and function of simple metabolic pathways, but are deficient when applied to more complex systems much as the metabolism of a complete cell.
metabolism

Bacterial metabolic communicate are a hint example of bow-tie
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
organization, an architecture able to inputs a widest crops of nutrients and outputs a ample variety of products and complex macromolecules using a comparatively few bargain common currencies.
The titled metabolism is derives from the Greek
metabolism
Μεταβολισμός – "metabolismos" for "change", or "overthrow".
metabolism
The history of the scientific major of metabolism enclosed any centuries and has moving from investigates whole animals in aboriginal studies, to investigates individual metabolic reactions in contemporary biochemistry. The first controlled experiments
metabolism
in hominid metabolism be perform by Santorio Santorio
metabolism
in 1614 in his schedule Ars de statica medicina.
metabolism
He set forth how he decide himself earlier and aft eating, sleep
metabolism
, working, sex, fasting, drinking, and excreting. He open that most of the food he work in was losing doner what he label "insensible perspiration".
It was the discovery of enzymes
metabolism
at the get down of the 20th century by Eduard Buchner
metabolism
that divide the major of the chemic reactions of metabolism from the biological major of cells, and attach the beginnings of biochemistry
metabolism
.
metabolism
The mass of biochemical knowledge develop quickly end-to-end the aboriginal 20th century. One of the most prolific of these contemporary biochemists was Hans Krebs
metabolism
who perform ample contributions to the major of metabolism.
metabolism
He detects the urea transit and later, work with Hans Kornberg
metabolism
, the citric harsh transit and the glyoxylate cycle.
metabolism
metabolism
contemporary biochemical experiment has appeared greatly help by the development of new techniques much as chromatography
metabolism
, X-ray diffraction
metabolism
, NMR spectroscopy
metabolism
, radioisotopic labelling
metabolism
, electron microscopy
metabolism
and molecular dynamics
metabolism
simulations. These techniques keep allowed the discovery and instance analysis of the galore molecules and metabolic pathways in cells.
See besides sound up metabolism
metabolism
in Wiktionary, the liberate dictionary. has more than on the topic of: metabolism
metabolism
has larn materials around Topic:Biochemistry
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism portal
metabolism
metabolism
Underwater travel portal
metabolism
Anthropogenic metabolism
metabolism
Antimetabolite
metabolism
Basal metabolic rate
metabolism
Calorimetry
metabolism
Isothermal microcalorimetry
metabolism
Inborn error of metabolism
metabolism
Iron-sulfur multinational theory
metabolism
, a "metabolism first" theory of the origin of life
metabolism
. Primary nutritionary groups
metabolism
Respirometry
metabolism
Stream metabolism
metabolism
Sulfur metabolism
metabolism
Thermic perform of food
metabolism
Water metabolism
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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Hendrickson W . "Transduction of biochemical communicate across cell membranes". Q Rev Biophys 38 : 321–30. doi
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Cohen P . "The modular of protein services by multisite phosphorylation—a 25 year update". trend Biochem Sci 25 : 596–601. doi
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Lienhard G, programs J, crowd D, Mueckler M . "How cells imbibe glucose". Sci Am 266 : 86–91. doi
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Comb P . "Glycogen and its metabolism". Curr Mol Med 2 : 101–20. doi
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Newgard C, Brady M, O'Doherty R, Saltiel A . "Organizing glucose disposal: be roles of the glycogen level subunits of protein phosphatase-1"
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Romano A, Conway T . "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol 147 : 448–55. doi
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Koch A . "How did bacteria happen to be?". Adv Microb Physiol. moving in microbic Physiology 40: 353–99. doi
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metabolism
Ouzounis C, Kyrpides N . "The emergence of bones multicellular affect in evolution". FEBS Lett 390 : 119–23. doi
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C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Mutation. ed. E.Monosson and C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. federal Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
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metabolism
Caetano-Anolles G, Kim HS, Mittenthal JE . "The origin of contemporary metabolic communicate reason from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture"
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metabolism
Schmidt S, Sunyaev S, Bork P, Dandekar T . "Metabolites: a help delegate for pathway evolution?". trend Biochem Sci 28 : 336–41. doi
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metabolism
lighten S, Kraulis P . "Network analysis of metabolic enzyme evolution in Escherichia coli"
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Kim HS, Mittenthal JE, Caetano-Anolles G . "MANET: investigates evolution of protein architecture in metabolic networks"
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metabolism
Teichmann SA, Rison SC, Thornton JM, Riley M, Gough J, Chothia C . "Small-molecule metabolsim: an enzyme mosaic". trend Biotechnol 19 : 482–6. doi
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metabolism
Spirin V, Gelfand M, Mironov A, Mirny L . "A metabolic speaks in the evolutionary context: Multiscale organize and modularity"
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metabolism
Lawrence J . "Common gates in the genome strategies of pathogens". Curr Opin Genet Dev 15 : 584–8. doi
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metabolism
Pál C, Papp B, Lercher M, Csermely P, Oliver S, Hurst L . "Chance and necessity in the evolution of borderline metabolic networks". Nature 440 : 667–70. Bibcode
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:2006Natur.440..667P
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metabolism
Rennie M . "An introduction to the use of tracers in nutrition and metabolism". Proc Nutr Soc 58 : 935–44. doi
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metabolism
Phair R . "Development of kinetic imitate in the nonlinear multinational of molecular cell biology". metabolism 46 : 1489–95. doi
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metabolism
Sterck L, Rombauts S, Vandepoele K, Rouzé P, Van de sound Y . "How galore genes are at that place in put ?". Curr Opin Plant Biol 10 : 199–203. doi
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metabolism
Borodina I, Nielsen J . "From genomes to in silico cells via metabolic networks". Curr Opin Biotechnol 16 : 350–5. doi
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metabolism
Gianchandani E, Brautigan D, Papin J . "Systems investigates known incorporating work of biochemical networks". trend Biochem Sci 31 : 284–91. doi
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metabolism
Duarte NC, Becker SA, Jamshidi N, et al. . "Global reconstruction of the hominid metabolic speaks basing on genomic and bibliomic data"
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. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 : 1777–82. Bibcode
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. PMC
metabolism
 1794290
metabolism
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metabolism
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
metabolism
Goh KI, Cusick ME, Valle D, Childs B, Vidal M, Barabási AL . "The hominid disease network"
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. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 : 8685–90. Bibcode
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 1885563
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metabolism
Lee DS, put J, Kay KA, Christakis NA, Oltvai ZN, Barabási AL . "The implications of hominid metabolic speaks topology for disease comorbidity"
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. PMC
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metabolism
.  summarized use objects parameters ^
metabolism
Csete M, Doyle J . "Bow ties, metabolism and disease". trend Biotechnol. 22 : 446–50. doi
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Ma HW, Zeng AP . "The connectivity structure, ample strongest component and centrality of metabolic networks". Bioinformatics 19 : 1423–30. doi
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Zhao J, Yu H, Luo JH, Cao ZW, Li YX . "Hierarchical modularity of populate bow-ties in metabolic networks"
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metabolism
Thykaer J, Nielsen J . "Metabolic design of beta-lactam production". Metab Eng 5 : 56–69. doi
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metabolism
Koffas M, Roberge C, Lee K, Stephanopoulos G . "Metabolic engineering". Annu Rev Biomed Eng 1: 535–57. doi
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:10.1146/annurev.bioeng.1.1.535
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^
metabolism
"metabolism"
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. The On-line Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-02-20.  ^
metabolism
Eknoyan G . "Santorio Sanctorius  – opening forms of metabolic match studies". Am J Nephrol 19 : 226–33. doi
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^
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Williams, H. S. A History of Science: in cardinal Volumes. Volume IV: contemporary Development of the chemic and biologic Sciences
metabolism
Harper and Brothers Retrieved on 2007-03-26 ^
metabolism
Dubos J. . "Louis Pasteur: liberate Travel of Science, Gollancz. summarized in Manchester K. L. Louis Pasteur —chance and the educate mind". trend Biotechnol 13 : 511–515. doi
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metabolism
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metabolism
Kinne-Saffran E, Kinne R . "Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs". Am J Nephrol 19 : 290–4. doi
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:10.1159/000013463
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^
metabolism
Eduard Buchner's 1907 Nobel lecture
metabolism
at http://nobelprize.org
metabolism
recover 2007-03-20 ^
metabolism
Kornberg H . "Krebs and his trinity of cycles". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1 : 225–8. doi
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:10.1038/35043073
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metabolism
Krebs HA, Henseleit K . "Untersuchungen über die Harnstoffbildung im tierkorper". Z. Physiol. Chem. 210: 33–66. doi
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:10.1515/bchm2.1932.210.1-2.33
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.  Krebs H, Johnson W . "metabolism of ketonic acids in physical tissues"
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. Biochem J 31 : 645–60. PMC
metabolism
 1266984
metabolism
. PMID
metabolism
 16746382
metabolism
.  summarized use objects parameters favor interpret Library resources
metabolism
around metabolism Online books
metabolism
Resources in your library
metabolism
Resources in variant libraries
metabolism

high
Price, N. and Stevens, L., Fundamentals of Enzymology: Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins. , ISBN 0-19-850229-X
metabolism
Berg, J. Tymoczko, J. and Stryer, L., Biochemistry. , ISBN 0-7167-4955-6
metabolism
Cox, M. and Nelson, D. L., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. , ISBN 0-7167-4339-6
metabolism
Brock, T. D.
metabolism
Madigan, M. T. Martinko, J. and Parker J., Brock's Biology of Microorganisms. , ISBN 0-13-066271-2
metabolism
Da Silva, J.J.R.F. and Williams, R. J. P., The biologic Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life. , ISBN 0-19-855598-9
metabolism
Nicholls, D. G. and Ferguson, S. J., Bioenergetics. , ISBN 0-12-518121-3
metabolism
outer think outer think widespread information metabolism, multicellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
metabolism
The vivid Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at biochemweb.org The Biochemistry of metabolism
metabolism
Advanced physical metabolism Calculators/ synergistic larn Tools
metabolism
Microbial metabolism
metabolism
simplest overview. educate level. Metabolic Pathways of Biochemistry
metabolism
graphic representations of bones metabolic pathways. Chemistry for biologists
metabolism
Introduction to the chemistry of metabolism. educate level. Sparknotes SAT biochemistry
metabolism
Overview of biochemistry. educate level. MIT Biology Hypertextbook
metabolism
Undergraduate-level manipulate to molecular biology. hominid metabolism Topics in Medical Biochemistry
metabolism
manipulate to hominid metabolic pathways. educate level. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/
metabolism
THE Medical Biochemistry Page] umbrella resource on hominid metabolism. Databases Flow charts of Metabolic Pathways
metabolism
at ExPASy
metabolism
IUBMB-Nicholson Metabolic Pathways Chart
metabolism
SuperCYP: Database for Drug-Cytochrome-metabolism
metabolism
Metabolic pathways Interactive move charts of the bones Metabolic Pathways
metabolism
metabolism write Pathway
metabolism
Guide to Glycolysis
metabolism
educate level. The Nitrogen transit and Nitrogen fixation
metabolism
at the Wayback Machine
metabolism
Downloadable manipulate to photosynthesis
metabolism
educate level. What is Photosynthesis?
metabolism
Collection of photosynthesis indentured and resources.
metabolism
  indentured think to metabolism Biochemical
metabolism
families
metabolism
: carbohydrates
metabolism
alcohols
metabolism
glycoproteins
metabolism
glycosides
metabolism
lipids
metabolism
eicosanoids
metabolism
fatty acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
phospholipids
metabolism
sphingolipids
metabolism
steroids
metabolism
nucleic acids
metabolism
constituents
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
proteins
metabolism
Amino acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
tetrapyrroles
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism widespread Metabolic pathway
metabolism
Metabolic network
metabolism
Primary nutritionary groups
metabolism
Energy metabolism
metabolism
Aerobic respiration
metabolism
Glycolysis
metabolism
Pyruvate Decarboxylation
metabolism
Citric harsh cycle
metabolism
Oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
Anaerobic respiration
metabolism
Electron acceptors are variant than oxygen Fermentation
metabolism
Glycolysis
metabolism
Substrate-level phosphorylation
metabolism
ABE
metabolism
Ethanol
metabolism
Lactic acid
metabolism
special paths Protein metabolism
metabolism
Protein synthesis
metabolism
Catabolism
metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
hominid Glycolysis
metabolism
Gluconeogenesis
metabolism
Glycogenolysis
metabolism
Glycogenesis
metabolism
Pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
Fructolysis
metabolism
Galactolysis
metabolism
Glycosylation
metabolism
N-linked
metabolism
O-linked
metabolism
anthropoid Photosynthesis
metabolism
Anoxygenic photosynthesis
metabolism
Chemosynthesis
metabolism
Carbon fixation
metabolism
Xylose metabolism
metabolism
Lipid metabolism
metabolism
Fatty harsh metabolism
metabolism
Fatty harsh degradation
metabolism
Fatty harsh synthesis
metabolism
variant Steroid metabolism
metabolism
Sphingolipid metabolism
metabolism
Eicosanoid metabolism
metabolism
Ketosis
metabolism
Amino acid
metabolism
Amino harsh synthesis
metabolism
Urea cycle
metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism Purine metabolism
metabolism
Nucleotide salvage
metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
metabolism
variant Metal metabolism
metabolism
Iron metabolism
metabolism
Ethanol metabolism
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism

m , i
Biochemical
metabolism
families
metabolism
: carbohydrates
metabolism
alcohols
metabolism
glycoproteins
metabolism
glycosides
metabolism
lipids
metabolism
eicosanoids
metabolism
fatty acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
phospholipids
metabolism
sphingolipids
metabolism
steroids
metabolism
nucleic acids
metabolism
constituents
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
proteins
metabolism
Amino acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
tetrapyrroles
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
: glycolysis
metabolism
/gluconeogenesis
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Glycolysis Hexokinase
metabolism
→/Glucose 6-phosphatase
metabolism
Glucose isomerase
metabolism
Phosphofructokinase 1
metabolism
→/Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase
metabolism
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase
metabolism
Triosephosphate isomerase
metabolism
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Phosphoglycerate kinase
metabolism
Phosphoglycerate mutase
metabolism
Enolase
metabolism
Pyruvate kinase
metabolism
Gluconeogenesis single to oxaloacetate
metabolism
: Pyruvate carboxylase
metabolism
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
metabolism
from lactate
metabolism
: Lactate dehydrogenase
metabolism
from alanine
metabolism
: Alanine transaminase
metabolism
from glycerol
metabolism
: Glycerol kinase
metabolism
Glycerol dehydrogenase
metabolism
inhibitory Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase
metabolism
PFKFB1
metabolism
, PFKFB2
metabolism
, PFKFB3
metabolism
, PFKFB4
metabolism
Bisphosphoglycerate mutase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
· pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
aerobiotic Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
6-phosphogluconolactonase
metabolism
Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
metabolism
nonoxidative Phosphopentose isomerase
metabolism
Phosphopentose epimerase
metabolism
Transketolase
metabolism
Transaldolase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
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metabolism
/i
metabolism
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metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
fructose
metabolism
and galactose
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Fructose
metabolism
/ Fructolysis
metabolism
Hepatic fructokinase
metabolism
Aldolase B
metabolism
Triokinase
metabolism
Sorbitol
metabolism
Sorbitol dehydrogenase
metabolism
Aldose reductase
metabolism
Galactose
metabolism
/ Galactolysis
metabolism
Galactokinase
metabolism
Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
metabolism
/UDP-glucose 4-epimerase
metabolism
Aldose reductase
metabolism
Lactose
metabolism
Lactose synthase
metabolism
Lactase
metabolism
Mannose
metabolism
Mannose phosphate isomerase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
 · proteoglycan
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
glycosaminoglycan
metabolism
anabolism
Heparan sulfate
metabolism
: EXT1
metabolism
 · EXT2
metabolism

Chondroitin sulfate
metabolism
: PAPSS1
metabolism
 · PAPSS2
metabolism
glycosaminoglycan
metabolism
catabolism Hunter
metabolism
, Hurler
metabolism
Iduronate-2-sulfatase
metabolism
 · Iduronidase
metabolism
Sanfilippo
metabolism
, Sly
metabolism
Heparan sulfamidase
metabolism
 · N-acetyltransferase
metabolism
 · Alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase
metabolism
 · Glucuronidase
metabolism
 · N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase
metabolism
Morquio
metabolism
/Maroteaux-Lamy
metabolism
Arylsulfatase B
metabolism
 · Galactosamine-6 sulfatase
metabolism
 · Beta-galactosidase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
· glycoprotein
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Anabolism Dolichol kinase
metabolism
GCS1
metabolism
Oligosaccharyltransferase
metabolism
Catabolism Neuraminidase
metabolism
Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Hexosaminidase
metabolism
mannosidase
metabolism
alpha-Mannosidase
metabolism
beta-mannosidase
metabolism
Aspartylglucosaminidase
metabolism
Fucosidase
metabolism
NAGA
metabolism
buses SLC17A5
metabolism
M6P
metabolism
stick N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
 · glycolipid
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Sphingolipid
metabolism
To glycosphingolipid
metabolism
Glycosyltransferase
metabolism
 · Sulfotransferase
metabolism
To ceramide
metabolism
From ganglioside
metabolism
: Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Hexosaminidase A
metabolism
Neuraminidase
metabolism
Glucocerebrosidase
metabolism
From globoside
metabolism
: Hexosaminidase B
metabolism
Alpha-galactosidase
metabolism
Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Glucocerebrosidase
metabolism
From sphingomyelin
metabolism
: Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase
metabolism
From sulfatide
metabolism
: Arylsulfatase A
metabolism
Galactosylceramidase
metabolism
To sphingosine
metabolism
Ceramidase
metabolism
ACER1
metabolism
ACER2
metabolism
ACER3
metabolism
ASAH1
metabolism
ASAH2
metabolism
ASAH2B
metabolism
ASAH2C
metabolism
variant Sphingosine kinase
metabolism
NCL
metabolism
Palmitoyl protein thioesterase
metabolism
Tripeptidyl peptidase I
metabolism
CLN3
metabolism
CLN5
metabolism
CLN6
metabolism
CLN8
metabolism
Ceramide synthesis
metabolism
Serine C-palmitoyltransferase
metabolism
Ceramide glucosyltransferase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
- eicosanoid
metabolism
metabolism enzymes
metabolism
Precursor Phospholipase A2
metabolism
Phospholipase C
metabolism
Diacylglycerol lipase
metabolism
Prostanoids
metabolism
Cyclooxygenase
metabolism
PTGS1
metabolism
PTGS2
metabolism
PGD2 synthase
metabolism
PGE synthase
metabolism
Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase
metabolism
PGI2 synthase
metabolism
TXA synthase
metabolism
Leukotrienes
metabolism
5-Lipoxygenase initiate protein
metabolism
/Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
metabolism
LTA4 hydrolase
metabolism
LTC4 synthase
metabolism
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
metabolism
DPEP2
metabolism
Ungrouped HPGD
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
/ fatty harsh metabolism
metabolism
, triglyceride
metabolism
and fatty acid
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Synthesis Malonyl-CoA
metabolism
synthesis ATP change state lyase
metabolism
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Fatty harsh synthesis
metabolism
/ Fatty harsh synthase
metabolism
Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase
metabolism
Β-Ketoacyl ACP reductase
metabolism
3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase
metabolism
Enoyl ACP reductase
metabolism
adipose harsh desaturases
metabolism
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1
metabolism
Triacyl glycerol Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Thiokinase
metabolism
Degradation
metabolism
Acyl transport
metabolism
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I
metabolism
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase
metabolism
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II
metabolism
Beta oxidation
metabolism
widespread Acyl CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
Enoyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
MTP
metabolism
: HADH
metabolism
HADHA
metabolism
HADHB
metabolism
Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
metabolism
Unsaturated
metabolism
Enoyl CoA isomerase
metabolism
2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase
metabolism
Odd chain
metabolism
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
variant Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase
metabolism
To acetyl-CoA
metabolism
Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase
metabolism
Aldehydes
metabolism
Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
ketones
metabolism
/cholesterol
metabolism
synthesis enzymes
metabolism
/steroid metabolism
metabolism
Mevalonate pathway
metabolism
To HMG-CoA
metabolism
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase
metabolism
HMG-CoA synthase
metabolism
Ketogenesis
metabolism
HMG-CoA lyase
metabolism
3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Thiophorase
metabolism
To Mevalonic acid
metabolism
HMG-CoA reductase
metabolism
To DMAPP
metabolism
Mevalonate kinase
metabolism
Phosphomevalonate kinase
metabolism
Pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase
metabolism
Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase
metabolism
Geranyl- Dimethylallyltranstransferase
metabolism
Geranyl pyrophosphate
metabolism
To cholesterol
metabolism
To lanosterol
metabolism
Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
metabolism
Squalene monooxygenase
metabolism
Lanosterol synthase
metabolism
7-Dehydrocholesterol
metabolism
path Lanosterol 14α-demethylase
metabolism
Sterol-C5-desaturase-like
metabolism
7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase
metabolism
Desmosterol
metabolism
path 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase
metabolism
To Bile acids
metabolism
Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase
metabolism
Sterol 27-hydroxylase
metabolism
Steroidogenesis
metabolism
To pregnenolone
metabolism
Side-chain cleavage
metabolism
To corticosteroids
metabolism
aldosterone
metabolism
: 18-hydroxylase
metabolism
cortisol
metabolism
/cortisone
metabolism
: 17α-hydroxylase
metabolism
11β dehydrogenase
metabolism
HSD11B1
metabolism
HSD11B2
metabolism
both: 3β dehydrogenase
metabolism
21α-hydroxylase
metabolism
11β-hydroxylase
metabolism
To sex hormones
metabolism
To androgens
metabolism
17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
metabolism
3β dehydrogenase
metabolism
17β dehydrogenase
metabolism
5α reductase
metabolism
1
metabolism
2
metabolism
To estrogens
metabolism
Aromatase
metabolism
Other/ungrouped Steroid metabolism
metabolism
: sulfatase
metabolism
Steroid sulfatase
metabolism
sulfotransferase
metabolism
SULT1A1
metabolism
SULT2A1
metabolism
Steroidogenic subacute inhibitory protein
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
anat
metabolism
/phys
metabolism
/devp
metabolism
/horm
metabolism

proc
metabolism
, drug
metabolism

v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · synthesis
metabolism
and catabolism enzymes
metabolism
K
metabolism
acetyl-CoA
metabolism
LYSINE
metabolism
Saccharopine dehydrogenase
metabolism
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
LEUCINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
Isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase
metabolism
Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase
metabolism
TRYPTOPHAN
metabolism
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
metabolism
/Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
metabolism
Arylformamidase
metabolism
Kynureninase
metabolism
3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase
metabolism
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase
metabolism
Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism
PHENYLALANINE
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
G
metabolism
G→pyruvate
metabolism
citrate
metabolism
glycine
metabolism
serine
metabolism
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase
metabolism
Serine dehydratase
metabolism
glycine
metabolism
creatine
metabolism
: Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
metabolism
Creatine kinase
metabolism
alanine
metabolism
Alanine transaminase
metabolism
cysteine
metabolism
D-cysteine desulfhydrase
metabolism
threonine
metabolism
L-threonine dehydrogenase
metabolism
G→glutamate
metabolism
α-ketoglutarate
metabolism
HISTIDINE
metabolism
Histidine ammonia-lyase
metabolism
Urocanate hydratase
metabolism
Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase
metabolism
proline
metabolism
Proline oxidase
metabolism
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
metabolism
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase
metabolism
/ALDH4A1
metabolism
PYCR1
metabolism
arginine
metabolism
Ornithine aminotransferase
metabolism
Ornithine decarboxylase
metabolism
Agmatinase
metabolism
alpha-ketoglutarate
metabolism
→TCA Glutamate dehydrogenase
metabolism
variant cysteine
metabolism
+glutamate
metabolism
glutathione
metabolism
: Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase
metabolism
Glutathione synthetase
metabolism
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
metabolism
glutamate
metabolism
glutamine
metabolism
: Glutamine synthetase
metabolism
Glutaminase
metabolism
G→propionyl-CoA
metabolism
succinyl-CoA
metabolism
VALINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
Enoyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase
metabolism
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism
ISOLEUCINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
METHIONINE
metabolism
generation of homocysteine
metabolism
: Methionine adenosyltransferase
metabolism
Adenosylhomocysteinase
metabolism
regeneration of methionine
metabolism
: Methionine synthase
metabolism
/Homocysteine methyltransferase
metabolism
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase
metabolism
conversion to cysteine
metabolism
: Cystathionine important synthase
metabolism
Cystathionine gamma-lyase
metabolism
THREONINE
metabolism
Threonine aldolase
metabolism
succinyl-CoA
metabolism
→TCA Propionyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase
metabolism
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
metabolism
G→fumarate
metabolism
PHENYLALANINE
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
metabolism
Tyrosine aminotransferase
metabolism
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
metabolism
Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
metabolism
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
melanin
metabolism
: Tyrosinase
metabolism
G→oxaloacetate
metabolism
asparagine
metabolism
aspartate
metabolism
Asparaginase
metabolism
/Asparagine synthetase
metabolism
Aspartate transaminase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
- urea cycle
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
important transit mitochondrial matrix
metabolism
: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
metabolism
Ornithine transcarbamylase
metabolism
cytosol
metabolism
: Argininosuccinate synthetase
metabolism
Argininosuccinate lyase
metabolism
Arginase
metabolism
Regulatory/transport N-Acetylglutamate synthase
metabolism
Ornithine translocase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · neurotransmitter
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
monoamine
metabolism
histidine
metabolism
histamine
metabolism
anabolism: Histidine decarboxylase
metabolism
catabolism: Histamine N-methyltransferase
metabolism
 · Amine oxidase
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
dopamine
metabolism
epinephrine
metabolism
anabolism: Tyrosine hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Aromatic L-amino harsh decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Dopamine important hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
metabolism
catabolism: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
metabolism
 · Monoamine oxidase
metabolism
glutamate
metabolism
GABA
metabolism
anabolism: Glutamate decarboxylase
metabolism
catabolism: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase
metabolism
tryptophan
metabolism
serotonin
metabolism
melatonin
metabolism
Tryptophan hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Aromatic L-amino harsh decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
metabolism
arginine
metabolism
NO
metabolism
Nitric oxide synthase
metabolism
" title="Nitric oxide synthase 2 ">NOS2
metabolism
, NOS3
metabolism
) choline
metabolism
Acetylcholine
metabolism
anabolism: Choline acetyltransferase
metabolism
catabolism: Cholinesterase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · nucleotide
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Purine metabolism
metabolism
Anabolism
IMP->AMP
metabolism
: Adenylosuccinate synthase
metabolism
 · Adenylosuccinate lyase
metabolism
 · improved
IMP->GMP
metabolism
: IMP dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · GMP synthase
metabolism
 · improved Nucleotide salvage
metabolism
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
metabolism
 · Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
metabolism
Catabolism Adenosine deaminase
metabolism
 · Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
metabolism
 · Guanine deaminase
metabolism
 · Xanthine oxidase
metabolism
 · Urate oxidase
metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
metabolism
Anabolism
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase
metabolism
/Uridine monophosphate synthetase
metabolism

CTP synthase
metabolism
Catabolism Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · Dihydropyrimidinase
metabolism
/DPYS
metabolism
 · Beta-ureidopropionase
metabolism
/UPB1
metabolism
Deoxyribonucleotides
metabolism
Ribonucleotide reductase
metabolism
 · Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase
metabolism
 · DCMP deaminase
metabolism
 · Thymidylate synthase
metabolism
 · Dihydrofolate reductase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · porphyrin
metabolism
/heme
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Porphyrin biosynthesis
metabolism

cytosolic: Porphobilinogen deaminase
metabolism
 · Uroporphyrinogen III synthase
metabolism
 · Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase
metabolism

recently mitochondrial: Protoporphyrinogen oxidase
metabolism
 · Ferrochelatase
metabolism
Heme degradation
metabolism
to bile
metabolism

M
metabolism
: MET
metabolism

k
metabolism
, cgrp
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, au
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism
, epon
metabolism

M
metabolism
: MYL
metabolism

rbmg
metabolism
/mogr
metabolism
/tumr
metabolism
/hist
metabolism
, sysi
metabolism
/epon
metabolism
, btst
metabolism

M
metabolism
: NUT
metabolism

noco
metabolism
, nuvi
metabolism
, sysi
metabolism
/epon
metabolism
, met
metabolism

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