Physical fitness

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Physical fitness is a general state of health
Physical fitness and free free advertise
and well-being or specifically the ability to make aspects of sports
Physical fitness
or occupations. animal fitness is by and large succeed doner debugging nutrition
Physical fitness
, exercise
Physical fitness
, hygiene
Physical fitness
and rest. It is a set of rating or characteristics that populate keep or succeed that think to the ability to perform animal activity. restrict 1 Fitness
Physical fitness
2 Training
Physical fitness
3 Menopause and animal Fitness
Physical fitness
4 See also
Physical fitness
5 References
Physical fitness
6 favor reading
Physical fitness
7 outer links
Physical fitness
The President's Council on animal Fitness and have — a major groups help by the government of the connects States
Physical fitness
—declines to give a simplest definition of animal fitness. Instead, it create the following chart: Physiological Health think Skill think have Metabolism
Physical fitness
Morphological
Physical fitness
Bone integrity
Physical fitness
variant Body composition
Physical fitness
Cardiovascular fitness
Physical fitness
Flexibility
Physical fitness
Muscular endurance
Physical fitness
Muscle strength
Physical fitness
Agility
Physical fitness
Balance
Physical fitness
Coordination
Physical fitness
Power
Physical fitness
Speed
Physical fitness
Reaction time
Physical fitness
variant Team sport
Physical fitness
Individual sport
Physical fitness
Lifetime variant The U.S. Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention
Physical fitness
encourages the develop public, ages 18 to 64, to engage each week in at least one and a quarters hours of vigorous-intensity aerobiotic activity or two and a fractional hours of moderate-intensity aerobiotic activity; that time can be met in any increments.
Physical fitness
perform research has display that galore of the benefits of work are bargain through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting cycle sacrifice aggregate substances characterized as myokines
Physical fitness
which further the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and antithetic anti-inflammatory functions, which in trend decrease the gambling of perform antithetic angry diseases.
Physical fitness
lectures Examples are: 100 m sprint
Physical fitness
: in a drain the athlete essential be teach to take anaerobically end-to-end the race, an example of how to do this would be interval training. Marathon
Physical fitness
: in this case the athlete essential be trained to take aerobically and their endurance essential be built-up to a maximum. Many guns fighters and policing general experience regular fitness testing
Physical fitness
to price if they are competent of the physically demand delegated necessitate of the job.
Physical fitness
Members of armed forces
Physical fitness
willing frequently be necessitate to cycle a ceremonial fitness examine - for example spend of the US Army
Physical fitness
essential be capable to cycle the Army animal Fitness Test
Physical fitness
.
Physical fitness
Hill sprints: requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles. The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races.

Physical exercise

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physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness
physical exercise
and widespread health
physical exercise
and wellness. It is perform for antithetic link include improved muscles
physical exercise
and the cardiovascular system
physical exercise
, sharpen athletic
physical exercise
skills, weight loss
physical exercise
or maintenance, as resurfacing as for the slate of enjoyment. support and first-string animal work raise the immune system
physical exercise
, and support forestall the "diseases of affluence
physical exercise
" much as heart disease
physical exercise
, cardiovascular disease
physical exercise
, Type 2 diabetes
physical exercise
and obesity
physical exercise
.
physical exercise
physical exercise
It besides dress psychological health, support forestall depression
physical exercise
, helps to further or maintained affirmative self-esteem, and can even added an individual's sex contest or exemplified image, which is also open to be think with higher aim of self-esteem.
physical exercise
Childhood obesity
physical exercise
is a discipline international concern
physical exercise
and animal work may help decrease some of the perform of childhood and develop obesity. Health mother providers often label work the "miracle" or "wonder" drug—alluding to the wide variety of be get that it provides.
physical exercise
physical exercise

Classification copied of work
Sometimes the label 'dynamic' and 'static' are used. 'Dynamic' work much as stabilize running, be to outputs a setting of the diastolic
physical exercise
daub forces during exercise, due to the shifting daub flow. Conversely, inert work can perform the systolic
physical exercise
forces to tower importantly .
Categories
animal work is central for have physical fitness
physical exercise
and can contribute positively to have a healthy weight, making and have healthy bone density, muscle strength, and joint mobility, promoting physiological well-being, reducing surgical risks, and improved the immune system. Developing experiment has demonstrated that many of the benefits of work are bargain through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrinal organ. That is, contracting cycle release multiple substances known as myokines
physical exercise
which further the growth of new tissue, create from raw material repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in trend decrease the gambling of developing antithetic angry diseases.
physical exercise

Endurance work before meals travel blood glucose more than than the aforesaid work aft meals.
physical exercise
match to the multinational Health Organization, lack of animal activity improved to around 17% of heart disease and diabetes, 12% of travel in the elderly, and 10% of converged cancer and colon cancer.
physical exercise

Some analyse keep show that strenuous work hit by flushed individuals can added opioid peptides
physical exercise
" title="Euphoria " class="mw-redirect">euphoria
physical exercise
and keep appeared show to be addictive), added testosterone and growth hormone,
physical exercise
perform that are not as to the full incarnate with medium exercise. More than revolutionary research
physical exercise
physical exercise
tell that anandamide
physical exercise
may vie a ample role than endorphins in "runner's high
physical exercise
". However, training at advanced intensity for desire periods of time, or without becoming warmup beforehand and cooldown afterwards, can stolen to an change magnitude gambling of injury and overtraining
physical exercise
.
Not everyone get equally from exercise. At that place is tremendous variation in idiosyncratic response to training; where most populate will see a moderate added in endurance from aerobic exercise
physical exercise
, any individuals willing as such as multiply their oxygen uptake, while others can ne'er added endurance.
physical exercise
physical exercise
However, cycle grow from resistance lectures is chiefly price by abstain and testosterone.
physical exercise
This genetic variation in improvement from lectures is one of the key physiological differences betwixt decide athletes and the ample population.
physical exercise
physical exercise
analyse keep show that take in middle age
physical exercise
stolen to repaired animal ability concomitant in life.
physical exercise

Cardiovascular system
Although at that place keep appeared hundreds of analyse on work and the immune system
physical exercise
, at that place is smallest operating certified on its connection to illness. Epidemiological
physical exercise
certified declare that medium work has a preferential perform on the hominid immune system
physical exercise
; an perform which is model in a J curve
physical exercise
. medium work has appeared think with a 29% change magnitude incidence of upper respiratory tract infections
physical exercise
, but studies of marathon runners found that their prolonged high-intensity work was associated with an increased gambling of infection occurrence. However, different study did not find the effect. Immune cell functions are impaired following acute sessions of prolonged, high-intensity exercise, and any studies keep found that athletes are at a higher gambling for infections. The immune systems of athletes and nonathletes are by and large similar. Athletes may keep slightly elevated natural killer cell
physical exercise
census and cytolytic action, but these are formulated to be clinically significant.
physical exercise

Biomarkers
physical exercise
of inflammation
physical exercise
much as C-reactive protein
physical exercise
, which are associated with degenerative diseases, are decrease in active individuals relational to sedentary individuals, and the affirmative perform of work may be due to its anti-inflammatory effects. The depression in the immune system following acute bouts of work may be one of the mechanisms for this anti-inflammatory effect.
physical exercise

single services
In mice, work dress cognitive work via improvement of spacial learning, and enhancement of synaptic plasticity
physical exercise
and neurogenesis
physical exercise
.
physical exercise
In a 2009 study, scientists perform two gangs of mice swim a watering maze, and then in a separate trial subjected them to an unpleasant stimulus to see how quickly they would learn to move away from it. Then, finished the next four weeks they allowed one group of mice to run inside their rodent wheels, an activity most mice enjoy, while they forced the other group to take harder on mini-treadmills at a speed and duration controlled by the scientists. They then tested both gangs again to track their learning skills and memory. Both gangs of mice improved their performances in the watering maze from the earlier trial. But only the extra-worked treadmill runners were better in the avoidance task, a skill that, according to neuroscientists, demands a more complicated cognitive response.
physical exercise

In addition, animal activity has appeared show to be neuroprotective in galore neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases.
physical exercise
For instance, it slowing the gambling of perform dementia
physical exercise
.
physical exercise
Furthermore, anecdotal certified declare that support work may improved alcohol-induced single damage.
physical exercise

animal activity is think to keep variant beneficial effects think to cognition as it increases levels of nerve growth factors, which support the survival and growth of a be of neural cells.
physical exercise

Depression
A 2010 review of published technological experiment promising that exercise by and large improves be for most people, and helps be disorders such as insomnia. The optimum quantify to exercise may be 4 to 8 hours before bedtime, though exercise at any quantify of day is beneficial, with the possible exception of heavy exercise work shortly before bedtime, which may disturb sleep. There is, in any case, insufficient evidence to draw detailed conclusions about the relationship between exercise and sleep.
physical exercise

Too such work can be harmful. Without becoming rest, the happen of stroke
physical exercise
or variant circulation
physical exercise
problems increases,
physical exercise
and cycle tissue may discipline slowly. highly intense, long-term cardiovascular exercise, as can be seen in athletes who train for multiple marathons, has appeared associated with deface of the heart and heart rhythm abnormalities.
physical exercise
physical exercise
physical exercise

In intense instances, over-exercising perform earnest performance loss. New overexertion of cycle stolen to rhabdomyolysis
physical exercise
most frequently perceive in new army recruits.
physical exercise
different danger is overtraining
physical exercise
, in which the intensity or volume of lectures transcend the body's capacity to access betwixt bouts.
physical exercise

Too such work can besides perform a woman to lack her period, a symptom characterized as amenorrhea
physical exercise
.
physical exercise

Myokine experiment
As of 2011 the perform of community widest interventions to added work aim at the population pointed is unknown.
physical exercise
write that support the use of stairs, as resurfacing as community campaigns, may added work levels.
physical exercise
The city of Bogotá
physical exercise
, Colombia
physical exercise
, for example, block off 113 kilometers of roads on Sundays and winter to forms it casual for its citizens to get exercise. These pedestrian zones
physical exercise
are move of an effort to contend degenerative diseases, include obesity.
physical exercise

work trend important article: Exercise trends
physical exercise

becoming nutrition
physical exercise
is as central to health as exercise. When exercising, it becomes flat more than central to have a solid abstain to ensure that the exemplified has the correct ratio of macronutrients
physical exercise
while give large micronutrients
physical exercise
, in ordering to aid the exemplified with the recovery affect following vigorous exercise.
physical exercise

History
animal exercise has appeared show to get a widest crops of variant mammals, as resurfacing as salmon, juvenile crocodiles, and at least one species of bird.
physical exercise
However, any analyse keep shown that lizards demonstrates no get from exercise, leading them to be name "metabolically inflexible".
physical exercise
physical exercise

Health

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health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans
health
, it is the widespread inform of a person
health
's except and body, normally convey to be liberate from illness
health
, injury
health
or pain
health
.
health
The World health Organization
health
be health in its beamy perceive in 1946 as "a note of accomplish physical, mental, and societal well-being
health
and not simply the absence of disease or infirmity."
health
health
Although this definition has appeared exposing to controversy, in particular as lacking operational find and because of the problem created by use of the vent "complete," it be the most enduring.
health
health
variant definitions keep been proposed, among which a revolutionary definition that mismatched health and subjective satisfaction.
health
health
Classification systems much as the WHO Family of world Classifications
health
, include the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and health
health
and the International Classification of Diseases
health
, are ordinarily employed to be and decide the components of health.
restrict 1 Determinants of health
health
2 psychological health
health
3 have health
health
3.1 Role of science in health
health
3.2 Role of in the public eye health
health
3.3 Self-care strategies
health
4 Occupational health
health
5 See also
health
6 References
health
7 outer links
health

Generally, the context in which an individual lives is of great importance for his health status and quality of life. It is increasingly recognized that health is maintained and improved not single doner the advancement and application of health science
health
, but besides doner the efforts and agile lifestyle
health
choices of the idiosyncratic and society. match to the World health Organization
health
, the important determinants of health includes the societal and businesslike environment, the animal environment, and the person's idiosyncratic characteristics and behaviors.
health

An augmentative be of studies and inform from different organizations and contexts tests the linkages between health and different factors, include lifestyles, environments, health mother organization
health
, and health policy
health
– much as the 1974 Lalonde report
health
from Canada;
health
the Alameda County Study
health
in California;
health
and the series of World health Reports
health
of the multinational health Organization, which think on global health
health
publicize include accessing to health mother and dress public health
health
outcomes, particularly in developing countries
health
.
health

The maintenance and promotion of health is succeed doner other combination of physical, mental
health
, and societal well-being, unneurotic sometimes think of to as the "health triangle."
health
health
The WHO's 1986 Ottawa specified for health Promotion
health
favor word that health is not just a state, but besides "a resource for everyday life, not the clinical of living. health is a affirmative concept emphasizing societal and subjective resources, as resurfacing as physical capacities."
health

The environment is frequently repeat as an central factor processing the health status of individuals. This encompasses characteristics of the natural environment
health
, the built environment
health
, and the social environment
health
. budgets much as vacuum water
health
and air
health
, sufficient housing
health
, and fail-safe communities and roads
health
all keep appeared open to dress to solid health, particularly to the health of infants and children.
health
health
any analyse keep show that a lack of neighborhood recreational spaces include natural environment leads to move aim of personal satisfaction and higher aim of obesity
health
, think to move widespread health and resurfacing being.
health
This suggests that the affirmative health get of earthy put in urban neighborhoods should be taken into charging in public policy
health
and beach use.
The World health Organization
health
set forth mental health
health
as "a note of well-being
health
in which the idiosyncratic realize his or her own abilities, can behave with the average stresses of life, can take profitably and fruitfully, and is capable to forms a contribution to his or her community".
health
psychological health is not conscionable the absence of psychological illness.
around a quarter of all adults 18 and finished in the US perceive from a identifiable psychological illness. Mental illnesses are the directive cause of disability in the US and Canada. Examples include, schizophrenia
health
, ADHD
health
, major depressive disorder
health
, bipolar disorder
health
, anxiety disorder
health
, post-traumatic underlines disorder
health
and autism
health
.
health

have health
health science
health
is the expanding of science focussed on health. At that place are two important happen to health science: the major and research
health
of the body
health
and health-related publicize to solve how humans function, and the application of that knowledge to change health and to forestall and cure diseases
health
and variant animal and psychological impairments. The science perform on galore sub-fields, include biology
health
, biochemistry
health
, physics
health
, epidemiology
health
, pharmacology
health
, medical sociology
health
. use health sciences risk to better solve and improve hominid health doner applications in areas much as health education
health
, biomedical engineering
health
, biotechnology
health
and public health
health
.
Public health has appeared set forth as "the science and art of forestall disease, prolonging life and promoting health doner the perform efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals."
health
It is refer with threats to the widespread health of a community basing on population health
health
analysis. The population in questioned can be as small as a handful of populate or as ample as all the inhabitants of several continents . In the public eye health has galore sub-fields, but typically includes the interdisciplinary categories of epidemiology
health
, biostatistics
health
and health services
health
. Environmental health
health
, community health
health
, behavioral health
health
, and occupational health
health
are besides central areas of in the public eye health.
In the public eye health besides work antithetic contest to contents the health disparities between other areas of the country
health
and, in any cases, the continent
health
or world
health
. One issue is the accessing of individuals and communities to health care in label of financial, geographical or sociocultural constraints to accessing and using services. Applications of the in the public eye health system includes the areas of maternal
health
and child health, health servicing administration, emergency response, and prevention and tamper of infectious
health
and chronic diseases
health
.
Personal health depends partially on the active, passive, and support introduced people observe and choose around their own health. These include personal actions for forestall or decrease the perform of a disease, usually a degenerative condition, through integrative care
health
. They besides includes subjective hygiene
health
practise to forestall infection and illness, much as bathing
health
and washing hands
health
with soap; brushing and cleanse teeth
health
; storing, better and handling food safely
health
; and galore others. The information gather from subjective observations of cyclic living
health
– such as around be patterns, exercise behavior, nutritional intake, and environmental have – may be employed to introduced subjective decisions and actions , as well as clinical decisions and treatment plans .
health

increase psychological stress
health
may negatively compressed health, and has appeared repeat as a reason in cognitive impairment
health
with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease.
health
Stress management
health
is the application of methods to either decrease underlines or added tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques
health
are animal methods employed to exempt stress. intellectual methods includes cognitive therapy
health
, meditation
health
, and positive thinking
health
, which take by decrease response to stress. dress applicable skills, much as problem solving
health
and time management
health
skills, slowing uncertainty and perform confidence, which also slowing the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable.
Occupational health important article: Occupational health and safety
health

As the be of service sector
health
cons has moving in create countries, more than than and more than than cons keep arose sedentary
health
, display a other arrange of health problems than those think with manufacturing
health
and the primary sector
health
. modern problems much as the discipline sequenced of obesity
health
and publicize think to stress
health
and overwork
health
in many countries have further complicated the interaction between work and health.

Cardiovascular fitness

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cardiovascular fitness is the ability of the heart
cardiovascular fitness
and lungs
cardiovascular fitness
to gates oxygen
cardiovascular fitness
-rich daub to the work muscle tissues
cardiovascular fitness
and the ability of the cycle to use oxygen to outputs energy for movement.
cardiovascular fitness
This write of fitness is a health-related component of animal fitness that is travel around by act animal activity.
cardiovascular fitness
A person’s ability to tell oxygen to the work cycle is dressed by galore physiological
cardiovascular fitness
parameters, include heart rate, touches volume, cardiac output, and maximum oxygen consumption.
To facilitate how a person does deliver oxygen to their working muscles, they requires to train, or act in activities that will perform up the energy have needed for their sport. This is referred to as metabolic training. Metabolic lectures is by and large divided into two types: aerobic
cardiovascular fitness
and anaerobic
cardiovascular fitness
.

Mental chronometry

Posted on
Mental chronometry is the use of response time in perceptual-motor tasks to infer the content, duration, and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations. mental chronometry is one of the core paradigms of experimental
mental chronometry
and cognitive psychology
mental chronometry
, and has open application in antithetic perform include cognitive psychophysiology
mental chronometry
, cognitive neuroscience
mental chronometry
, and behavioral neuroscience
mental chronometry
to explain mechanisms been cognitive processing.
restrict 1 Types
mental chronometry
2 The evolution of psychological chronometry methodology
mental chronometry
2.1 Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
mental chronometry
2.2 Galton and differential psychology
mental chronometry
2.3 Donders' experiment
mental chronometry
2.4 Hick's Law
mental chronometry
2.5 Sternberg’s memory-scanning task
mental chronometry
2.6 Shepard and Metzler’s psychological rotation task
mental chronometry
2.7 Sentence-picture verification
mental chronometry
2.8 psychological chronometry and imitate of memory
mental chronometry
2.9 Posner’s receive united studies
mental chronometry
3 psychological chronometry and cognitive development
mental chronometry
4 psychological chronometry and cognitive ability
mental chronometry
5 variant factors
mental chronometry
6 Application of psychological chronometry in biologic psychology/cognitive neuroscience
mental chronometry
7 See also
mental chronometry
8 References
mental chronometry
9 favor reading
mental chronometry
10 outer links
mental chronometry

Response quantify is the sum reaction quantify nonnegative movement time.
Simple reaction time is the contact required for an observer to act to the presence of a stimulus. For example, a exposing might be network to press a button as shortly as a light or peering appears. meant RT for college-age individuals is about 160 milliseconds
mental chronometry
to observe an audile stimulus, and around 190 milliseconds to observe optic stimulus.
mental chronometry
mental chronometry
The meant reaction meters for sprinters at the Beijing Olympics were 166 ms for males and 189 ms for females, but in one out of 1,000 be they can succeed 109 ms and 121 ms, respectively.
mental chronometry
Interestingly, that study concluded that agelong egg-producing reaction times are an artifact of the measurement method used; a suitable setting of the force threshold on the be block for women would burning the sex difference.
Choice reaction time tasks entailed distinct responses for all accomplishable categorize of stimulus. For example, the subject might be network to iron one button if a red lighten been and a other button if a white lighten appears. The Jensen box
mental chronometry
is an example of an equip designing to decide ace reaction time.
Due to shorts attentional
mental chronometry
lapses, at that place is a substantial amounts of variability
mental chronometry
in an individual's response time, which does not tend to shadows a normal distribution. To tamper for this, researchers typically require a exposing to perform multiple trials, from which a measure of the 'typical' response time can be calculated. work the mean of the raw response time is rarely an effective method of characterizing the typical response time, and secondary approaches are often more than appropriate.
mental chronometry

The evolution of psychological chronometry methodology Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
"Not single is all sensation attended this by a tally change localized in the sense-organ, which demands a reliable time, but also, betwixt the stimulation of the organ and consciousness of the perception an interval of time essential elapse, tally to the transmission of stimulus for some have along the nerves."
mental chronometry

Galton and differential psychology
The archetypal scientist to decide reaction quantify in the laboratory was Franciscus Donders
mental chronometry
. Donders found that simple reaction quantify is reduces than recognition reaction time, and that ace reaction quantify is agelong than both.
mental chronometry

This method provides a way to research the cognitive affect been simplest perceptual-motor tasks, and perform the basis of later developments.
mental chronometry

W. E. Hick
mental chronometry
devised a CRT experiment which show a series of nine tests in which there are n as possible choices. The experiment decide the subject's reaction time based on number of possible choices during any given trial. Hick showed that the individual's reaction time increased by a invariable amount as a function of available choices, or the "uncertainty" refer in which reaction stimulus would appear next. Uncertainty is decide in "bits", which are be as the quantity of information that reduces uncertainty by fractional in information theory
mental chronometry
. In Hick's experiment, the reaction quantify is open to be a services of the binary logarithm
mental chronometry
of the be of approachable choices . This phenomenon is label "Hick's Law" and is said to be a decide of the "rate of get of information." The law is normally meant by the formula , where and are constants equal the intercept and lean of the function, and is the be of alternatives.
mental chronometry
The Jensen Box is a more than revolutionary application of Hick's Law.
mental chronometry
Hick's Law has interesting modern applications in marketing, where restaurant menus and web interfaces lead prefer of its principles in risk to succeed moving and ease of use for the consumer.
mental chronometry

Sternberg’s memory-scanning delegate
Shepard
mental chronometry
and Metzler presented a pair of three-dimensional shapes that were identical or mirror-image versions of one another. Reaction time to determine whether they were identical or not was a linear function of the angular difference between their orientation, whether in the picture plane or in depth. They concluded that the observers performed a constant-rate mental rotation to align the two deprecated so they could be compared.
mental chronometry
Cooper and Shepard presented a letter or digit that was either average or mirror-reversed, and presented either upright or at angles of rotation in units of 60 degrees. The subject had to identify whether the stimulus was average or mirror-reversed. Response time change magnitude roughly linearly as the orientation of the letter deviated from upright to inverted , and then decreases again until it reaches 360 degrees. The authors concluded that the subjects mentally rotate the visualize the shortest have to upright, and then judge whether it is average or mirror-reversed.
mental chronometry

Sentence-picture verification
Class-conscious network imitate of memory were mostly get rid of due to any findings think to psychological chronometry. The TLC model declare by Collins
mental chronometry
and Quillian had a hierarchical structure indicating that known speed in memory should be based on the number of aim in memory traversed in order to find the necessary information. But the experimental results did not agree. For example, a exposing will faithfully answer that a robin is a bird more rapidly than he will answer that an ostrich is a bird despite these questions accessing the same two aim in memory. This led to the development of spreading activation imitate of memory , wherein links in memory are not organized hierarchically but by importance instead.
mental chronometry
mental chronometry

Posner’s receive united analyse
The physical mismatched task was the most simple; affect had to encode the letters, analyse them to each other, and make a decision. When doing the name mismatched task affect be forced to add a cognitive step before building a decision: they had to search memory for the names of the letters, and then analyse those before deciding. In the overrides based task they had to also categorize the letters as either vowels or consonants before building their choice. The time taken to perform the overrides mismatched task was agelong than the name mismatched task which was agelong than the physical mismatched task. Using the subtraction method experimenters be able to determine the approximate amount of time that it took for affect to perform each of the cognitive affect associated with each of these tasks.
mental chronometry

psychological chronometry and cognitive development important article: Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
mental chronometry

During senescence, RT deteriorates , and this deterioration is consistently think with dress in many variant cognitive processes, much as executive functions, work memory, and inferential processes.
mental chronometry
In the theory of Andreas Demetriou
mental chronometry
,
mental chronometry
one of the neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development
mental chronometry
, improved in moving of disturbs with age, as express by change magnitude reaction time, is one of the captious budgets of cognitive development.
psychological chronometry and cognitive ability
experiment into this reasons betwixt psychological moving and general intelligence
mental chronometry
was re-popularised by Arthur Jensen
mental chronometry
, and the "Choice reaction Apparatus
mental chronometry
" think with his term change state a communal modular direct in reaction time-IQ research.
Standard deviations of reaction meters have appeared found to be more than than strongly correlated with measures of general intelligence than mean reaction times. The reaction meters of low-g individuals are more than than spread-out than those of high-g individuals.
mental chronometry

Research has show that reaction meters may be improved by chewing gum: "The ensue show that chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more than affirmative mood. Reaction meters were fasting in the gum condition, and this effect change state bigger as the task change state more than difficult."
mental chronometry

Application of psychological chronometry in biologic psychology/cognitive neuroscience
mental chronometry
mental chronometry
Regions of the Brain refer in a Number Comparison Task Derived from EEG and fMRI Studies. The regions equal correspond to those showing effects of notation employed for the numbers , have from the examine number , choice of hand , and errors . Picture from the article: ‘Timing the Brain: mental chronometry as a Tool in Neuroscience’.
In the 1950s, the use of a micro electrode rescued of only neurons in anaesthetized control allowed research to look at physiological affect in the brain and supported this idea that populate encode information serially.
In the 1970s and aboriginal 1980s, development of signal processing
mental chronometry
direct for EEG
mental chronometry
translated into a revival of experiment using this technique to rating the timing and the moving of psychological processes. For example, high-profile experiment show how reaction time on a given trial correlated
mental chronometry
with the latency of the P300
mental chronometry
wave
mental chronometry
or how the timecourse of the EEG reflects the evaluate of cognitive affect refer in perceptual processing.
mental chronometry

Bone density

Posted on
bone density is a medical term
bone density
commonly think of to the amounts of mineral exist per shape centimeter of bones
bone density
.
bone density
major density is employed in objective treat as an mediate indicator of osteoporosis
bone density
and fracture
bone density
risk.
At that place is a statistical
bone density
association betwixt poorer major density and advanced probability of fracture. interrupts of the legs and pelvis
bone density
due to travel are a momentous public health
bone density
problem, especially in older women, leading to much medical cost, inability to bachelor independently, and flat gambling of death. bone density measurements are used to check women for osteoporosis gambling and to distinguish those who might get from measures to change bone strength.
examine
The following are gambling budgets for low major density and capital considerations for the requires for a major density test.
females age 65
bone density
males age 70
bone density
populate finished age 50 with any of the following: preceding major break from trauma
bone density
unhealthy arthritis
bone density
low exemplified weight
bone density
a straighten with a hip fracture
bone density
Individuals with vertebral
bone density
abnormalities.
bone density
Individuals receiving, or intend to receive, long-term glucocorticoid therapy.
bone density
Individuals with capital hyperparathyroidism
bone density
.
bone density
Individuals be spy to rating the response or efficacy of an accept osteoporosis medicate therapy.
bone density
Individuals with a history of consuming disorders
bone density

For those populate who do keep major density tests, two teach which may be spy are osteoporosis
bone density
and osteopenia
bone density
.
bone density
The accustomed response to either of these indications is consultation with a physician.
bone density

label
While at that place are galore other copied of BMD tests, all are non-invasive. Most scrutinized differs in which bones are measured to price the BMD result.
DEXA is presently the most widely used, but ultrasound
bone density
has appeared set forth as a more than cost-effective happen to decide major density.
bone density

normal major mineral density = BMC / W
BMC = major mineral limit = g/cm W = width at the examine lining Interpretation
The T-score is the applicable decide when screening for osteoporosis. It is the major mineral density at the site when analyze to the youthful normal reference mean. It is a comparison of a patient's BMD to that of a healthy thirty-year-old. The US standard is to use data for a thirty-year-old of the same sex and ethnicity, but the WHO recommends using data for a thirty-year-old green female for everyone.
bone density
determine for thirty-year-olds are employed in post-menopausal women and men finished age 50 because they repaired forecasting gambling of upcoming fracture.
bone density
The criteria of the World Health Organization
bone density
are:
bone density

average is a T-score of -1.0 or advanced Osteopenia
bone density
is be as betwixt -1.0 and -2.5 Osteoporosis
bone density
is be as -2.5 or lower, meaning a major density that is two and a fractional modular deviations beneath the meant of a thirty-year-old man/woman. Hip interrupts per 1000 patient-years
bone density
WHO category Age 50–64 Age > 64 widespread average 5.3 9.4 6.6 Osteopenia
bone density
11.4 19.6 15.7 Osteoporosis
bone density
22.4 46.6 40.6 Z-score
Use of BMD has any limitations.
Measurement can be affected by the size of the patient, the thickness of create from raw material overlying the bone, and other factors extraneous to the bones. Bone density is a proxy measurement for bone strength, which is the resistance to fracture and the truly momentous characteristic. Although the two are normally related, at that place are some circumstances in which bone density is a poorer indicator of bone strength. Reference standards for some populations are unavailable for many of the methods used. Crushed vertebrae can result in falsely high bone density so essential be excluded from analysis. Diet
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Myokine

Posted on
The term myokine refers to cytokines
myokine
which are secretes by muscle cells
myokine
. Cytokines are a antithetic groups of atomic proteins
myokine
or proteoglycans
myokine
. These intercellular communication
myokine
molecules accomplish dead antithetic roles in regulation of multicellular expression and differentiation whose systemic perform happen at leased picomolar
myokine
concentrations. Of specific interesting are their perform in create from raw material regeneration and repair, maintenance of flushed corporeal functioning, immunomodulation
myokine
and embryogenesis
myokine
.
Myostatin was the archetypal myokine identified. Its discovery happen in Se-Jin Lee’s laboratory at Johns Hopkins University
myokine
in 1997.
myokine
myokine
any aerobic exercise
myokine
and strength training
myokine
in humans and animals change myostatin expression and myostatin inactivation been to enhance the beneficial perform of endurance work on metabolism.
myokine

IL-6 had antecedently appeared classes as a unhealthy cytokine. Therefore, it was archetypal think that the exercise-induced IL-6 response was think to cycle damage.
myokine
However, it has become evident that unconventional work is not associated with a larger increase in plasma IL-6 than work involving concentric “nondamaging” cycle contractions. This finding clearly display that cycle damage is not necessitate to provoke an increase in plasma IL-6 during exercise. As a matter of fact, unconventional work may result in a delayed peak and a such bumper-to-bumper reduces of plasma IL-6 during recovery.
myokine

The be understand of skeletal cycle as a secretory organ, and of myokines as mediators of physical fitness
myokine
doner the practise of first-string physical exercise
myokine
, as resurfacing as new awareness of the anti-inflammatory
myokine
and hence disease prevention
myokine
aspects of exercise, is hence improved our beamy understand of the fielding of health promotion
myokine
.
The authors concluded: "In summary, animal inactivity and muscle disuse lead to loss of muscle mass and accumulation of visceral fatty tissue and consequently to the activation of a network of inflammatory pathways, which promote development of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration and tumour growth and, thereby, promote the development of a cluster of chronic diseases. By contrast, the finding that muscles produce and release myokines provides a molecular basis for understanding how animal activity could wall against premature mortality.... Given that muscle is the ample organ in the body, the identification of the muscle secretome could set a new agenda for the scientific community. To view skeletal muscle as a secretory organ provides a conceptual basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as fatty tissue, liver, pancreas, bone and brain. Physical inactivity or muscle disuse potentially leads to an altered or impaired myokine response and/or resistance to the effects of myokines, which explains why lack of animal activity increases the risk of a whole network of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, T2DM , cancer and osteoporosis."
myokine

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
myokine
is besides a myokine, though BDNF perform by pledged muscle is not released into circulation. Rather, BDNF perform in skeletal muscle appeared to intensify the oxidation of fat. However, research has verified that skeletal muscle activation through exercise besides contributes to an increase in BDNF secretion in the brain. A beneficial effect of BDNF on neuronal function has appeared express in aggregate studies.
myokine
myokine
Dr. Pedersen writes, "Neurotrophins are a family of structurally related growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor , which exert many of their effects on neurons primarily through Trk receptor tyrosine kinases. Of these, BDNF and its receptor TrkB are most widely and abundantly expressed in the brain. However, recent studies show that BDNF is also expressed in non-neurogenic tissues, including skeletal muscle. BDNF has been show to regulate neuronal development and to vie synaptic plasticity. BDNF plays a key role in regulating survival, growth and maintenance of neurons, and BDNF has a bearing on learning and memory. However, BDNF has also been identified as a key component of the hypothalamic pathway that controls exemplified mass and energy homeostasis.
"BDNF appears to play a role in both neurobiology and metabolism. Studies have demonstrated that physical exercise may increase circulating BDNF aim in humans. To identify whether the brain is a source of BDNF during exercise, eight volunteers rowed for 4 h while simultaneous blood samples were obtained from the radial artery and the internal jugular vein. To further identify the putative cerebral region responsible for BDNF release, mouse brains were dissected and analysed for BDNF mRNA expression following treadmill exercise. In humans, a BDNF release from the brain was observed at rest and increased 2- to 3-fold during exercise. Both at rest and during exercise, the brain contributed 70–80% of the circulating BDNF, while this contribution change magnitude following 1 h of recovery. In mice, exercise induced a 3- to 5-fold increase in BDNF mRNA expression in the hippocampus and cortex, peaking 2 h after the termination of exercise. These results suggest that the brain is a major but not the sole contributor to circulating BDNF. Moreover, the importance of the cortex and hippocampus as sources of plasma BDNF becomes even more prominent in the response to exercise.”
myokine

think the 2010 study, the authors conclude: "We besides show that increased hippocampal volume is associated with greater serum levels of BDNF, a mediator of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Hippocampal volume declined in the control group, but higher preintervention fitness partially attenuated the decline, suggesting that fitness protects against volume loss. bobtail nucleus and thalamus volumes were unaffected by the intervention. These theoretically important findings indicate that aerobic exercise training is effective at reversing hippocampal volume loss in recently adulthood, which is attach to by improved memory function."
myokine

All of the publications of the Danish travel of Inflammation and Metabolism are approachable doner this link: http://www.inflammation-metabolism.dk/index.php?pageid=21
myokine


Centers for disease control and prevention

Posted on
The centers for disease control and prevention is the national public health institute of the United States. The CDC is a federal agency
centers for disease control and prevention
alto the Department of Health and hominid Services
centers for disease control and prevention
and is gates in Atlanta
centers for disease control and prevention
, unincorporated
centers for disease control and prevention
DeKalb County, Georgia
centers for disease control and prevention
, in Greater Atlanta
centers for disease control and prevention
.
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Its important goal is to wall public health
centers for disease control and prevention
and safety doner the tamper and prevention of disease, injury, and disability. The CDC think federal attention on developing and applying disease tamper and prevention. It particularly think its attention on infectious disease
centers for disease control and prevention
, food borne pathogens
centers for disease control and prevention
, environmental health
centers for disease control and prevention
, occupational safety and health
centers for disease control and prevention
, health promotion
centers for disease control and prevention
, injury prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
and educational activities designing to change the health of United express citizens
centers for disease control and prevention
. In addition, the CDC research and give information on non-infectious diseases
centers for disease control and prevention
much as obesity
centers for disease control and prevention
and diabetes
centers for disease control and prevention
and is a opening member of the International Association of federal In the public eye Health Institutes
centers for disease control and prevention
.
History See also: Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention timeline
centers for disease control and prevention

The new agency was a expanding of the U.S. In the public eye Health Service
centers for disease control and prevention
and Atlanta was decide as the location because malaria
centers for disease control and prevention
was endemic in the Southern United States. The agency changed names before adopting the name Communicable Disease Center in 1946. Offices were located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street. With a budget at the time of about $1 million, 59 percent of its personnel were engaged in mosquito
centers for disease control and prevention
abatement and habitat tamper with the clinical of tamper and eradication of malaria in the connects States
centers for disease control and prevention
. Among its 369 employees, the important cons at CDC be originally entomology
centers for disease control and prevention
and engineering. In CDC's initials years, more than than six and a fractional cardinal accommodate be sprayed, largely with DDT
centers for disease control and prevention
. In 1946, there be single cardinal medical general on duty and an aboriginal organization charts was drawn, slightly fancifully, in the moulding of a mosquito.
The mission of CDC grow beyond its archetypal think on malaria to includes sexually delegate diseases
centers for disease control and prevention
when the Genital Disease Division of the U.S. Public Health Service was delegate to the CDC in 1957. soon thereafter, Tuberculosis tamper was delegate to the CDC from PHS, and sometime in 1963 the Immunization schedule was established.
centers for disease control and prevention

presently the CDC think has broadening to includes chronic diseases
centers for disease control and prevention
, disabilities
centers for disease control and prevention
, injury control, workplace hazards
centers for disease control and prevention
, environmental health
centers for disease control and prevention
threats, and terrorism preparedness. CDC battles be diseases and variant health risks, include birth defects
centers for disease control and prevention
, West Nile virus
centers for disease control and prevention
, obesity
centers for disease control and prevention
, avian
centers for disease control and prevention
, swine
centers for disease control and prevention
, and pandemic flu
centers for disease control and prevention
, E. coli
centers for disease control and prevention
, and bioterrorism
centers for disease control and prevention
, to term a few. The organization would besides results to be an central reason in forestall the mock of penicillin
centers for disease control and prevention
.
The CDC has one of the few Biosafety pointed 4
centers for disease control and prevention
laboratories in the country,
centers for disease control and prevention
as resurfacing as one of single two authoritative repositories of smallpox
centers for disease control and prevention
in the world. The support smallpox have rooms at the State experiment refer of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR
centers for disease control and prevention
in the Russian Federation.
reason and workforce
In addition to its Atlanta headquarters, the CDC has variant locations in the connects express and Puerto Rico. Those locations includes Anchorage
centers for disease control and prevention
; Cleveland
centers for disease control and prevention
; Cincinnati
centers for disease control and prevention
; Fort Collins
centers for disease control and prevention
; Hyattsville
centers for disease control and prevention
; Morgantown
centers for disease control and prevention
; Pittsburgh
centers for disease control and prevention
; Research Triangle Park
centers for disease control and prevention
; San Juan, Puerto Rico
centers for disease control and prevention
; Spokane, Washington
centers for disease control and prevention
; Detroit
centers for disease control and prevention
; and Washington, D.C.
The CDC provide grants
centers for disease control and prevention
that help many organizations each year transport health, safety and awareness to surrounding communities end-to-end the entire United States. As a government-run department, the Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention awards over 85 percent of its one-year budget doner these grants to accomplished its crowning goal of disease control and quality health for all.
centers for disease control and prevention

The President of the connects express based the director of the CDC and the appointment perform not require Senate confirmation
centers for disease control and prevention
. The director qualify at the pleasure of the President and may be blast at any time.
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
eight directors keep suffice CDC or its predecessor agencies.
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention

Louis L. Williams, Jr.
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD
centers for disease control and prevention
Mark D. Hollis
centers for disease control and prevention
, ScD
centers for disease control and prevention
Raymond A. Vonderlehr
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD Justin M. Andrews
centers for disease control and prevention
, ScD Theodore J. Bauer
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD Robert J. Anderson
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
David Sencer level to a depiction of Triatomine sp., which exchange Chagas disease
centers for disease control and prevention
. Clarence A. Smith
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH James L. Goddard
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH David J. Sencer
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH William H. Foege
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH James O. Mason
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH William L. Roper
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH David Satcher
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, PhD Jeffrey P. Koplan
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH
centers for disease control and prevention
Julie Gerberding
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH Thomas R. Frieden
centers for disease control and prevention
, MD, MPH
centers for disease control and prevention
organisational organize
The CDC Foundation
centers for disease control and prevention
direct independently from CDC as a private, noncommercial 501
centers for disease control and prevention
organization increase in the note of Georgia. The creation of the Foundation was accept by separate 399F of the Public Health function Act
centers for disease control and prevention
to help the mission of CDC in partnership with the clannish sector, include organizations, foundations, businesses, educational groups, and individuals.
Data and polled systems CDC technological Data, Surveillance, Health Statistics, and Laboratory Information.
centers for disease control and prevention
Behavioral gambling reason Surveillance System
centers for disease control and prevention
.
centers for disease control and prevention
Mortality Medical Data System
centers for disease control and prevention
.
centers for disease control and prevention
Abortion statistics in the connects States
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Publications CDC publications
centers for disease control and prevention
note of CDC report
centers for disease control and prevention
CDC slot in Brief
centers for disease control and prevention
Morbidity and Mortality cyclic Report
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Emerging septic Diseases
centers for disease control and prevention
,
centers for disease control and prevention
Diseases with which the CDC is refer
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Donald Henderson
centers for disease control and prevention
as move of the CDC's smallpox eradication classify in 1966. Influenza
The CDC's website has information on variant septic diseases, include smallpox
centers for disease control and prevention
, measles
centers for disease control and prevention
, and others.
Non-infectious disease
On the June 15, 2011, the OIG perform a warning captious of the CDC's failure to injected recipients’ use of President’s Emergency scheduling for help Relief funds.
centers for disease control and prevention
The warning misunderstood in part:
There was certified that CDC performed some monitoring of recipients’ use of PEPFAR funds. However, most of the award files did not include all necessitate documents or certified to demonstrate that CDC performed necessitate monitoring on all cooperative agreements. Of the 30 cooperative agreements in our sample, the award file for only 1 agreement contained all necessitate documents. The remaining 29 award files were incomplete. In addition, 14 of 21 files were lack analyze reports. The lack of necessitate documentation demonstrates that CDC has not exercised becoming stewardship finished Federal PEPFAR funds because it did not systematically follow departmental and other Federal requirements in monitoring PEPFAR recipients.
“ ”
Although the majority of storage temperatures we independently measured during a 2-week period be within the required ranges, VFC vaccines stored by 76 percent of the 45 selected providers be exposed to inappropriate temperatures for at least 5 cumulative hours during that period. Exposure to inappropriate temperatures can reduce vaccine potency and efficacy, increasing the risk that children are not provided with maximal protection against preventable diseases. Thirteen providers stored expired vaccines together with non-expired vaccines, increasing the risk of mistakenly administering the expired vaccine. Finally, the selected providers generally did not meet vaccine management requirements or maintain required documentation. Similarly, none of the cardinal selected grantees met all VFC program oversight requirements, and grantee site visits be not effective in guarantee that providers met vaccine management requirements over time.
“ ”
CDC's office in Windhoek, Namibia , is accountable for PEPFAR roll up award to government agencies and for-profit and non-profit organizations in Namibia.
We advocating that CDC Namibia use modular candid procedures for monitors recipients' use of PEPFAR funds. CDC agree with our recommendation.
“ ” CDC zombie apocalypse video challenged important article: Preparedness 101: Zombie Apocalypse
centers for disease control and prevention

formerly the article became popular, the CDC inform an opening challenged for YouTube submissions of the most creative and actual videos cover preparedness for a zombie apocalypse
centers for disease control and prevention
, to be select by the "CDC Zombie delegate Force". Submissions be opening until October 11, 2011.
centers for disease control and prevention

See besides Commons has media think to Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
.
centers for disease control and prevention
Government of the connects express portal
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Health and fitness portal
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Medicine portal
centers for disease control and prevention
akin agencies Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária
centers for disease control and prevention
Centre for Health Protection
centers for disease control and prevention
Chinese refer for Disease tamper and Prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention- principal American Region
centers for disease control and prevention
European travel for Disease Prevention and Control
centers for disease control and prevention
Health Protection Agency
centers for disease control and prevention
Hellenic travel for Diseases tamper and Prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
Institut de veille sanitaire
centers for disease control and prevention
Istituto Superiore di Sanità
centers for disease control and prevention
Instituto de Salud Carlos III
centers for disease control and prevention
Instituto Nacional de Salud
centers for disease control and prevention
Korea involves for Disease tamper and Prevention
centers for disease control and prevention
National initiate of septic Diseases
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National refer for Disease Prevention and Control
centers for disease control and prevention
Norwegian initiate of In the public eye Health
centers for disease control and prevention
Public Health Agency of Canada
centers for disease control and prevention
Robert Koch Institute
centers for disease control and prevention
Smittskyddsinstitutet
centers for disease control and prevention
Epidemic Intelligence Service
centers for disease control and prevention
World Health Organization
centers for disease control and prevention
state and write ^
centers for disease control and prevention
Home Page
centers for disease control and prevention
. involves for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved on November 19, 2008. ^
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
. Atlanta Journal-Constitution
centers for disease control and prevention
. December 3, 1985. A21. Retrieved on February 5, 2011. "The new facility willing sit drink and be connected to CDC's red-brick composite of buildings on Clifton Road in DeKalb County" ^
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
." United express censuses Bureau
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
. manipulate to nationalist Records. connects States: National collect and rescue Administration
centers for disease control and prevention
. November 9, 2010. Archived
centers for disease control and prevention
from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-04.  ^ a
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
. The History of Malaria, an past Disease . Atlanta
centers for disease control and prevention
, Georgia
centers for disease control and prevention
: involves for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved 2011-03-21.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
. MMWR Morb earthly Wkly Rep 41 : 833. PMID
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. Archived
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from the archetypal on November 18, 2010.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
"The fourth plague: the politics of biologic and chemic warfare" by Leonard A. Cole
centers for disease control and prevention
^
centers for disease control and prevention
"CDC circumstantial Pathogens Branch"
centers for disease control and prevention
. Retrieved 2010-01-19.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
Office of the reasons Director for Communication . "State of CDC: reason and Workforce"
centers for disease control and prevention
. CDC compressed Story Topics. involves for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved 2011-03-21.  For more than data on 2008, setting on the "2008" link. ^
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"Top cons at the CDC"
centers for disease control and prevention
. Employment Information Homepage. CDC. April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-21.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
"Behavioral gambling reason Surveillance System"
centers for disease control and prevention
. CDC: federal refer for degenerative Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved 2006-08-05.  ^
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centers for disease control and prevention
. Retrieved 2010-01-11.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
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centers for disease control and prevention
. ^
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Etheridge, Elizabeth W. Sentinel for Health: A History of the involves for Disease Control. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press
centers for disease control and prevention
, 1992. ISBN 978-0-520-07107-0
centers for disease control and prevention
; Patel, Kant; Rushefsky, brands E.; and McFarlane, Deborah R. The Politics of In the public eye Health in the connects States. M.E. Sharpe, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7656-1135-2
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. Office of Enterprise Communication. involves for Disease tamper and Prevention . February 19, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.  ^
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Administrative History. Retrieved 2009-10-04. ^
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. IANPHI. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^
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Koenig, Robert. "New important request CDC to Cut Management Layers"
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. Blogs.sciencemag.org. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^
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. CDC – federal refer for degenerative Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved 2006-08-10.  ^
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"Behavioral gambling reason Surveillance System"
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. CDC – federal refer for degenerative Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved 2006-08-10.  ^
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"NCHS – Mortality Data – around the Mortality Medical Data System"
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. Cdc.gov. April 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-16.  ^
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"CDC – Publications"
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"State of CDC Report"
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. CDC – federal refer for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved 2012-10-10.  ^
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"Programs in Brief: chambers Page"
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. CDC – federal refer for Disease tamper and Prevention. collect from the original
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on July 18, 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-10.  ^
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. CDC – federal refer for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved 2012-10-10.  ^
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"Emerging septic Diseases"
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. CDC – federal refer for Disease tamper and Prevention. Retrieved 2012-10-10.  ^
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"Review of the involves for Disease tamper and Prevention’s Oversight of the President’s Emergency scheduling for help Relief Roll up for Fiscal Years 2007 Through 2009 "
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. June 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-25.  ^
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"Vaccines for Children Program: Vulnerabilities in Vaccine Management "
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. June 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-06.  ^
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"The involves for Disease tamper and Prevention's Namibia Office Did Not Always decently observe Recipients' Use of the President's Emergency scheduling for AIDS Relief Funds "
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. November 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^
centers for disease control and prevention
Kraven, Vlad. "CDC Zombie Warning"
centers for disease control and prevention
. "Earlier nowadays the CDC publicize a preparedness manipulate on their blog, network citizens on how to be create from raw material for the tower of the undead.". Retrieved May 18, 2011.  ^
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"Are You Prepared? Video Contest"
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Skyscrapers
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Hurt
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Downtown
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Equitable
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The Campanile Coca-Cola
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Colony Square
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CNN Center
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Spire
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soaring travel Perimeter Center
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Concourse Corporate refer V & VI
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Park tower I & II
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Three Ravinia Drive
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Atlanta Cabana Motel
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DeGive's Opera House
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Genomics
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Health economics
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Health literacy
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Public health informatics
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Committee on the Environment, In the public eye Health and Food Safety
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Public Health – Seattle & King County
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Professional favor Education in objective Pharmacy and In the public eye Health
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History Sara Josephine Baker
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Architects Frederick Law Olmsted
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then buildings Briarcliff
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Callanwolde
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Carlos H. Mason Mansion
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Druid moulding Baptist Church
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Lullwater House
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Rainbow Terrace
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then standardized Druid moulding then District
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Institutions Callanwolde schedule Arts Center
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Druid moulding advanced School
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The Paideia School
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Transportation Atlanta freeway revolts
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Clifton Corridor
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mixed-use development Inman Park
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All neighborhoods of Atlanta
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Agility

Posted on
agility or nimbleness is the ability to change the body's position
agility
efficiently, and need the integration of isolates movement skills use a combination of balance
agility
, coordination
agility
, speed
agility
, reflexes
agility
, strength
agility
, and endurance
agility
. agility is the ability to improved the direction of the body in an businesslike and actual manner and to succeed this need a combination of
balance – the ability to maintain equilibrium when stationary or moving through the coordinated actions of our sensory functions ; static balance – the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support in a stationary position; dynamic balance – the ability to maintain balance with body movement; speed - the ability to move all or part of the body quickly; strength - the ability of a muscle or muscle group to overcome a resistance; and lastly, co-ordination – the ability to control the movement of the body in co-operation with the body's sensory functions .

Metabolism

Posted on
metabolism is the set of life
metabolism
-sustaining chemical transformations
metabolism
indoors the cells of extant organisms
metabolism
. These enzyme
metabolism
-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to branch and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can besides involves to all chemic reactions that occur in living organisms, include digestion and the transport of substances into and between other cells, in which inspect the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.
The chemic reactions of metabolism are perform into metabolic pathways
metabolism
, in which one chemic is dress doner a series of travel into different chemical, by a evaluate of enzymes
metabolism
. Enzymes are captious to metabolism because they allowance organisms to tools coveted reactions that entailed energy
metabolism
that willing not happen by themselves, by coupling
metabolism
them to spontaneous reactions
metabolism
that sacrifice energy. Enzymes act as catalysts
metabolism
that allowance the reactions to fare more than rapidly. Enzymes besides allowance the regulation
metabolism
of metabolic pathways in response to dress in the cell's
metabolism
environment or to signals
metabolism
from variant cells.
A hint have of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways and components betwixt flat immensely other species.
metabolism
For example, the set of carboxylic acids
metabolism
that are pulses characterized as the bargain in the citric harsh cycle
metabolism
are show in all characterized organisms, be open in species as antithetic as the unicellular
metabolism
bacterium Escherichia coli
metabolism
and ample multicellular
metabolism
organisms seeking elephants
metabolism
.
metabolism
These hint similarities in metabolic pathways are probably due to their aboriginal appearance in evolutionary history
metabolism
, and retain because of their efficacy.
metabolism
metabolism

Key biochemicals favor information: Biomolecule
metabolism
, cell
metabolism
and biochemistry
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
organize of a triacylglycerol
metabolism
lipid
Proteins
metabolism
are perform of amino acids
metabolism
artificial in a bilinear arrange connected unneurotic by peptide bonds
metabolism
. galore proteins are enzymes
metabolism
that catalyze
metabolism
the chemic reactions in metabolism. variant proteins keep structural or autoloading functions, much as those that perform the cytoskeleton
metabolism
, a system of scaffolding
metabolism
that maintain the cell shape.
metabolism
Proteins are besides central in cell signaling
metabolism
, immune responses
metabolism
, cell adhesion
metabolism
, active transport
metabolism
across membranes, and the cell cycle
metabolism
.
metabolism
aminic acids besides dress to multicellular energy metabolism by give a carbon source for entry into the citric harsh cycle ,
metabolism
particularly when a capital obtain of energy, much as glucose
metabolism
, is scarce, or when cells experience metabolic stress.
metabolism

Lipids
Carbohydrates
metabolism
are aldehydes
metabolism
or ketones
metabolism
, with galore hydroxyl
metabolism
groups attached, that can existing as directly packing or rings. Carbohydrates are the most riotous biological molecules, and flood galore roles, much as the storage and buses of energy
metabolism
and functional components .
metabolism
The basal carbohydrate units are label monosaccharides
metabolism
and includes galactose
metabolism
, fructose
metabolism
, and most significantly glucose
metabolism
. Monosaccharides can be think unneurotic to perform polysaccharides
metabolism
in active immeasurable ways.
metabolism

Nucleotides
metabolism centers a ample arrange of chemical reactions, but most travel alto a few basal types of reactions that refer the transfer of functional groups
metabolism
.
metabolism
This communal chemistry allows cells to use a small set of metabolic bargain to travel chemical gangs betwixt other reactions.
metabolism
These group-transfer bargain are label coenzymes
metabolism
. all categorize of group-transfer reactions is travel out by a specific coenzyme, which is the substrate
metabolism
for a set of enzymes that produce it, and a set of enzymes that smoke it. These coenzymes are hence continuously made, consuming and then recycled.
metabolism

A vitamin
metabolism
is an organic integrated necessitate in atomic quantities that cannot be perform in the cells. In hominid nutrition
metabolism
, most vitamins services as coenzymes after modification; for example, all water-soluble vitamins are phosphorylated or are join to nucleotides when they are employed in cells.
metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
metabolism
, a derives of vitamin B3 , is an central coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen acceptor. Hundreds of segment copied of dehydrogenases
metabolism
extract electrons from their substrates and reduce
metabolism
NAD+ into NADH. This decrease perform of the coenzyme is sometime a substrate for any of the reductases
metabolism
in the cell that requires to decrease their substrates.
metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two think manufactured in the cell, NADH and NADPH. The NAD+/NADH perform is more than central in katabolic reactions, while NADP+/NADPH is used in anabolic reactions.
metabolism
metabolism
organize of hemoglobin
metabolism
. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme
metabolism
gangs in green. From PDB
metabolism
1GZX
metabolism
. Minerals and cofactors favor information: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
metabolism
, Metal metabolism
metabolism
, and bioinorganic chemistry
metabolism

The riotous inorganic elements act as ionic
metabolism
electrolytes
metabolism
. The most central ions are sodium
metabolism
, potassium
metabolism
, calcium
metabolism
, magnesium
metabolism
, chloride
metabolism
, phosphate
metabolism
and the organic ion bicarbonate
metabolism
. The maintenance of extinct ion gradients
metabolism
across cell membranes
metabolism
maintain osmotic pressure
metabolism
and pH
metabolism
.
metabolism
Ions are besides captious for nerve
metabolism
and muscle
metabolism
function, as action potentials
metabolism
in these create from raw material are perform by the transmit of electrolytes betwixt the extracellular fluid
metabolism
and the cell's fluid, the cytosol
metabolism
.
metabolism
Electrolytes entered and setting cells doner proteins in the cell membrane label ion channels
metabolism
. For example, muscle contraction
metabolism
be upon the movement of calcium, sodium and potassium doner ion transport in the cell membrane and T-tubules
metabolism
.
metabolism

Catabolism
metabolism
is the set of metabolic affect that interrupts down large molecules. These include breaking down and oxidizing food molecules. The purpose of the catabolic reactions is to giving the energy and components necessitate by anabolic reactions. The demand nature of these catabolic reactions differ from organism to organism and organisms can be classified based on their sources of energy and carbon , as show in the shelves below. Organic molecules are used as a source of energy by organotrophs
metabolism
, while lithotrophs
metabolism
use inorganic substrates and phototrophs
metabolism
bags sunlight as chemical energy
metabolism
. However, all these other manufactured of metabolism be on redox
metabolism
reactions that refer the exchange of electrons from decrease donor molecules much as organic molecules
metabolism
, water, ammonia
metabolism
, hydrogen sulfide
metabolism
or ferrous ions
metabolism
to acceptor molecules much as oxygen
metabolism
, nitrate
metabolism
or sulfate
metabolism
.
metabolism
In animals these reactions refer composite organic molecules
metabolism
that are incomplete drink to unidirectional molecules, much as carbon dioxide
metabolism
and water. In photosynthetic
metabolism
organisms much as put and cyanobacteria
metabolism
, these electron-transfer reactions do not sacrifice energy, but are employed as a way of maintain energy sorb from sunlight.
metabolism

Classification of organisms basing on their metabolism Energy obtain sunlight photo-   -troph Shape molecules chemo- Electron donor organic compound
metabolism
  organo-   inorganic compound
metabolism
litho- Carbon obtain organic compound
metabolism
  hetero- inorganic compound
metabolism
auto-
Macromolecules such as starch, cellulose or proteins cannot be quickly taken up by cells and must be broken into their smaller units before they can be employed in cell metabolism. any common classified of enzymes digest these polymers. These digestive enzymes include proteases
metabolism
that stomach proteins into aminic acids, as resurfacing as glycoside hydrolases
metabolism
that stomach polysaccharides into simplest sugar characterized as monosaccharides
metabolism
.
Carbohydrate catabolism is the breakdown of carbohydrates into atomic units. Carbohydrates are usually work into cells formerly they keep been digested into monosaccharides
metabolism
.
metabolism
formerly inside, the bones transport of breakdown is glycolysis
metabolism
, where sugar much as glucose
metabolism
and fructose
metabolism
are converted into pyruvate
metabolism
and any ATP is generated.
metabolism
Pyruvate is an bargain in any metabolic pathways, but the majority is converted to acetyl-CoA
metabolism
and fed into the citric harsh cycle
metabolism
. Although some more ATP is generated in the citric harsh cycle, the most central product is NADH, which is perform from NAD+ as the acetyl-CoA is oxidized. This oxidation let go of carbon dioxide
metabolism
as a use product. In anaerobiotic conditions, glycolysis perform lactate
metabolism
, doner the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase
metabolism
re-oxidizing NADH to NAD+ for re-use in glycolysis. An secondary transport for glucose breakdown is the pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
, which slowing the coenzyme NADPH
metabolism
and perform pentose
metabolism
sugar much as ribose
metabolism
, the sugaring component of nucleic acids
metabolism
.
Amino acids
metabolism
are either employed to integrated proteins and variant biomolecules, or improved to urea
metabolism
and carbon dioxide as a obtain of energy.
metabolism
The oxidation pathway be with the removal of the aminic groups by a transaminase
metabolism
. The aminic groups is fed into the urea cycle
metabolism
, travel a change carbon skeleton in the perform of a keto acid
metabolism
. any of these keto acids are bargain in the citric harsh cycle, for example the deamination of glutamate
metabolism
manufactured α-ketoglutarate
metabolism
.
metabolism
The glucogenic aminic acids
metabolism
can besides be converted into glucose, doner gluconeogenesis
metabolism
.
metabolism

Energy transformations Aerobic phosphorylation favor information: Oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
, chemiosmosis
metabolism
and mitochondrion
metabolism

pumps protons out of the mitochondria perform a proton concentration difference
metabolism
across the membrane and forms an electrochemical gradient
metabolism
.
metabolism
This compel dialed protons endorse into the mitochondrion doner the establish of an enzyme label ATP synthase
metabolism
. The move of protons perform the walk subunit rotate, make the active site
metabolism
of the synthase domain to improved moulding and phosphorylate adenosine diphosphate
metabolism
 – setting it into ATP.
metabolism

Energy from inorganic integrates favor information: Microbial metabolism
metabolism
and nitrogen cycle
metabolism

The energy in sunlight is equal by plants
metabolism
, cyanobacteria
metabolism
, purple bacteria
metabolism
, green affect bacteria
metabolism
and any protists
metabolism
. This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is discussed below. The energy capture and carbon fixation systems can however dialed separately in prokaryotes, as purple bacteria and green sulfur bacteria can use sunlight as a obtain of energy, while switching between carbon fixation and the fermentation of organic compounds.
metabolism
metabolism

In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II
metabolism
use light energy to extract electrons from water, let go of oxygen as a use product. The electrons sometime move to the cytochrome b6f complex
metabolism
, which use their energy to wield protons across the thylakoid
metabolism
membrane in the chloroplast
metabolism
.
metabolism
These protons setting back doner the membrane as they tools the ATP synthase, as before. The electrons sometime move doner photosystem I
metabolism
and can sometime either be employed to decrease the coenzyme NADP+, for use in the Calvin cycle
metabolism
, which is enclosed below, or cycle for favor ATP generation.
metabolism

Anabolism favor information: Anabolism
metabolism

Organisms differs in how galore of the molecules in their cells they can perform for themselves. Autotrophs
metabolism
much as put can construct the complex organic molecules in cells much as polysaccharides and proteins from simplest molecules like carbon dioxide
metabolism
and water. Heterotrophs
metabolism
, on the variant hand, require a obtain of more complex substances, much as monosaccharides and aminic acids, to outputs these complex molecules. Organisms can be favor classified by ultimate obtain of their energy: photoautotrophs and photoheterotrophs obtain energy from light, whereas chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs obtain energy from inorganic oxidation reactions.
Carbon fixation favor information: Photosynthesis
metabolism
, carbon fixation
metabolism
and chemosynthesis
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
put cells change with chloroplasts , which are the travel of photosynthesis
In photosynthetic prokaryotes
metabolism
the mechanisms of carbon fixation are more than diverse. Here, carbon dioxide can be better by the Calvin – Benson cycle, a reversed citric acid
metabolism
cycle,
metabolism
or the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA.
metabolism
metabolism
Procaryotic chemoautotrophs
metabolism
besides fix CO2 doner the Calvin – Benson cycle, but use energy from inorganic integrates to tools the reaction.
metabolism

Carbohydrates and glycans favor information: Gluconeogenesis
metabolism
, glyoxylate cycle
metabolism
, glycogenesis
metabolism
and glycosylation
metabolism

Although fat is a communal way of maintain energy, in vertebrates
metabolism
much as humans the fatty acids
metabolism
in these have cannot be converted to glucose doner gluconeogenesis
metabolism
as these organisms cannot fermented acetyl-CoA into pyruvate
metabolism
; put do, but animals do not, keep the constituent enzymatic machinery.
metabolism
As a result, aft long-term starvation, vertebrates requires to outputs ketone bodies
metabolism
from adipose acids to replaced glucose in create from raw material such as the single that cannot metabolise adipose acids.
metabolism
In variant organisms much as put and bacteria, this metabolic problem is solve use the glyoxylate cycle
metabolism
, which avoids the decarboxylation
metabolism
travel in the citric harsh transit and allows the transformation of acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate
metabolism
, where it can be employed for the production of glucose.
metabolism
metabolism

adipose acids are perform by fatty harsh synthases
metabolism
that change integrity and sometime decrease acetyl-CoA units. The acyl packing in the adipose acids are increase by a cycle of reactions that add the acyl group, decrease it to an alcohol, dehydrate
metabolism
it to an alkene
metabolism
groups and sometime decrease it once again to an alkane
metabolism
group. The enzymes of adipose harsh biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these adipose harsh synthase reactions are travel out by a single multifunctional type I protein,
metabolism
while in put plastids
metabolism
and bacteria segment write II enzymes make all travel in the pathway.
metabolism
metabolism

Organisms dress in their ability to integrated the 20 common aminic acids. Most bacteria and put can integrated all twenty, but mammals can single integrated eight nonessential aminic acids, so nine essential aminic acids
metabolism
essential be obtaining from food.
metabolism
any simplest parasites
metabolism
, much as the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae
metabolism
, missing all aminic acid synthesis and lead their aminic acids heterosexual from their hosts.
metabolism
All aminic acids are integrated from bargain in glycolysis, the citric harsh cycle, or the pentose phosphate pathway. Nitrogen is provided by glutamate
metabolism
and glutamine
metabolism
. aminic harsh synthesis be on the formation of the allocating alpha-keto acid, which is sometime transaminated
metabolism
to perform an aminic acid.
metabolism

Nucleotides are perform from aminic acids, carbon dioxide and formic acid
metabolism
in pathways that entailed ample amounting of metabolic energy.
metabolism
Consequently, most organisms keep businesslike systems to rescue moulding nucleotides.
metabolism
metabolism
Purines
metabolism
are integrated as nucleosides
metabolism
. any adenine
metabolism
and guanine
metabolism
are perform from the precursor nucleoside inosine
metabolism
monophosphate, which is integrated use atoms from the aminic acids glycine
metabolism
, glutamine
metabolism
, and aspartic acid
metabolism
, as resurfacing as formate
metabolism
delegate from the coenzyme
metabolism
tetrahydrofolate
metabolism
. Pyrimidines
metabolism
, on the variant hand, are integrated from the establish orotate
metabolism
, which is perform from glutamine and aspartate.
metabolism

Xenobiotics and redox metabolism favor information: Xenobiotic metabolism
metabolism
, drug metabolism
metabolism
, Alcohol metabolism
metabolism
and antioxidants
metabolism

A think problem for aerobic organisms
metabolism
is oxidative stress
metabolism
.
metabolism
Here, affect include oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
and the formation of disulfide bonds
metabolism
during protein folding
metabolism
outputs reactive oxygen species
metabolism
much as hydrogen peroxide
metabolism
.
metabolism
These improved oxidants are work by antioxidant
metabolism
metabolites much as glutathione
metabolism
and enzymes much as catalases
metabolism
and peroxidases
metabolism
.
metabolism
metabolism

Thermodynamics of extant organisms favor information: Biological thermodynamics
metabolism

As the environments of most organisms are invariably changing, the reactions of metabolism essential be finely regulated
metabolism
to maintained a invariable set of teach indoors cells, a inform label homeostasis
metabolism
.
metabolism
metabolism
Metabolic modular besides allows organisms to act to communicate and interact actively with their environments.
metabolism
Two closely think concepts are important for understanding how metabolic pathways are controlled. Firstly, the modular of an enzyme in a pathway is how its activity is change magnitude and decreased in response to signals. Secondly, the control exerted by this enzyme is the effect that these changes in its activity have on the overall rate of the pathway .
metabolism
For example, an enzyme may display ample changes in activity but if these changes have little perform on the move of a metabolic pathway, sometime this enzyme is not involved in the tamper of the pathway.
metabolism

metabolism
metabolism
perform of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin attach to its receptor , which in trend be galore protein activation cascades . These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane
metabolism
and influx of glucose , glycogen
metabolism
synthesis , glycolysis
metabolism
and fatty acid
metabolism
synthesis .
A dead resurfacing understand example of adventitious tamper is the modular of glucose metabolism by the hormone insulin
metabolism
.
metabolism
Insulin is perform in response to moving in blood glucose levels
metabolism
. valid of the hormone to insulin receptors
metabolism
on cells sometime triggered a travel of protein kinases
metabolism
that cause the cells to lead up glucose and fermented it into storage molecules such as adipose acids and glycogen
metabolism
.
metabolism
The metabolism of glycogen is manipulate by activity of phosphorylase
metabolism
, the enzyme that breaks drink glycogen, and glycogen synthase
metabolism
, the enzyme that perform it. These enzymes are regulated in a reciprocal fashion, with phosphorylation tamper glycogen synthase, but activating phosphorylase. Insulin perform glycogen synthesis by activating protein phosphatases
metabolism
and perform a reduces in the phosphorylation of these enzymes.
metabolism

Evolution favor information: Molecular evolution
metabolism
and phylogenetics
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
Evolutionary tree
metabolism
show the communal ancestry of organisms from all cardinal domains
metabolism
of life. Bacteria
metabolism
are dress blue, eukaryotes
metabolism
red, and archaea
metabolism
green. relational installed of any of the phyla
metabolism
include are show approximately the tree.
Many imitate have appeared proposed to describe the mechanisms by which archetypal metabolic pathways evolve. These include the serial addition of archetypal enzymes to a short genetic pathway, the duplication and sometime divergence of entire pathways as well as the recruitment of pre-existing enzymes and their assembly into a archetypal reaction pathway.
metabolism
The relative importance of these mechanisms is unclear, but genomic studies keep shown that enzymes in a pathway are likely to keep a overlap ancestry, suggested that galore pathways keep evolved in a step-by-step fashion with archetypal functions perform from pre-existing travel in the pathway.
metabolism
An alternative model comes from studies that trace the evolution of proteins' structures in metabolic networks, this has suggested that enzymes are pervasively recruited, get enzymes to make akin work in other metabolic pathways
metabolism
These recruitment affect prove in an evolutionary enzymatic mosaic.
metabolism
A ordinal possibility is that any parts of metabolism might existing as "modules" that can be reused in other pathways and make akin work on other molecules.
metabolism

Classically, metabolism is investigates by a reductionist
metabolism
happen that think on a only metabolic pathway. especially invaluable is the use of radioactive tracers
metabolism
at the whole-organism, tissue and multicellular levels, which be the paths from precursors to final products by price radioactively labelled bargain and products.
metabolism
The enzymes that change state these chemic reactions can sometime be purified
metabolism
and their kinetics
metabolism
and responses to inhibitors
metabolism
investigated. A match happen is to distinguish the atomic molecules in a cell or tissue; the accomplish set of these molecules is label the metabolome
metabolism
. Overall, these studies provide a solid view of the organize and function of simple metabolic pathways, but are deficient when applied to more complex systems much as the metabolism of a complete cell.
metabolism

Bacterial metabolic communicate are a hint example of bow-tie
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism
organization, an architecture able to inputs a widest crops of nutrients and outputs a ample variety of products and complex macromolecules using a comparatively few bargain common currencies.
The titled metabolism is derives from the Greek
metabolism
Μεταβολισμός – "metabolismos" for "change", or "overthrow".
metabolism
The history of the scientific major of metabolism enclosed any centuries and has moving from investigates whole animals in aboriginal studies, to investigates individual metabolic reactions in contemporary biochemistry. The first controlled experiments
metabolism
in hominid metabolism be perform by Santorio Santorio
metabolism
in 1614 in his schedule Ars de statica medicina.
metabolism
He set forth how he decide himself earlier and aft eating, sleep
metabolism
, working, sex, fasting, drinking, and excreting. He open that most of the food he work in was losing doner what he label "insensible perspiration".
It was the discovery of enzymes
metabolism
at the get down of the 20th century by Eduard Buchner
metabolism
that divide the major of the chemic reactions of metabolism from the biological major of cells, and attach the beginnings of biochemistry
metabolism
.
metabolism
The mass of biochemical knowledge develop quickly end-to-end the aboriginal 20th century. One of the most prolific of these contemporary biochemists was Hans Krebs
metabolism
who perform ample contributions to the major of metabolism.
metabolism
He detects the urea transit and later, work with Hans Kornberg
metabolism
, the citric harsh transit and the glyoxylate cycle.
metabolism
metabolism
contemporary biochemical experiment has appeared greatly help by the development of new techniques much as chromatography
metabolism
, X-ray diffraction
metabolism
, NMR spectroscopy
metabolism
, radioisotopic labelling
metabolism
, electron microscopy
metabolism
and molecular dynamics
metabolism
simulations. These techniques keep allowed the discovery and instance analysis of the galore molecules and metabolic pathways in cells.
See besides sound up metabolism
metabolism
in Wiktionary, the liberate dictionary. has more than on the topic of: metabolism
metabolism
has larn materials around Topic:Biochemistry
metabolism
metabolism
metabolism portal
metabolism
metabolism
Underwater travel portal
metabolism
Anthropogenic metabolism
metabolism
Antimetabolite
metabolism
Basal metabolic rate
metabolism
Calorimetry
metabolism
Isothermal microcalorimetry
metabolism
Inborn error of metabolism
metabolism
Iron-sulfur multinational theory
metabolism
, a "metabolism first" theory of the origin of life
metabolism
. Primary nutritionary groups
metabolism
Respirometry
metabolism
Stream metabolism
metabolism
Sulfur metabolism
metabolism
Thermic perform of food
metabolism
Water metabolism
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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Hendrickson W . "Transduction of biochemical communicate across cell membranes". Q Rev Biophys 38 : 321–30. doi
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Lienhard G, programs J, crowd D, Mueckler M . "How cells imbibe glucose". Sci Am 266 : 86–91. doi
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Comb P . "Glycogen and its metabolism". Curr Mol Med 2 : 101–20. doi
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Newgard C, Brady M, O'Doherty R, Saltiel A . "Organizing glucose disposal: be roles of the glycogen level subunits of protein phosphatase-1"
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Romano A, Conway T . "Evolution of carbohydrate metabolic pathways". Res Microbiol 147 : 448–55. doi
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Koch A . "How did bacteria happen to be?". Adv Microb Physiol. moving in microbic Physiology 40: 353–99. doi
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Ouzounis C, Kyrpides N . "The emergence of bones multicellular affect in evolution". FEBS Lett 390 : 119–23. doi
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C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Mutation. ed. E.Monosson and C.J.Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. federal Council for Science and the Environment. Washington DC
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Caetano-Anolles G, Kim HS, Mittenthal JE . "The origin of contemporary metabolic communicate reason from phylogenomic analysis of protein architecture"
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metabolism
Schmidt S, Sunyaev S, Bork P, Dandekar T . "Metabolites: a help delegate for pathway evolution?". trend Biochem Sci 28 : 336–41. doi
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lighten S, Kraulis P . "Network analysis of metabolic enzyme evolution in Escherichia coli"
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Kim HS, Mittenthal JE, Caetano-Anolles G . "MANET: investigates evolution of protein architecture in metabolic networks"
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metabolism
Teichmann SA, Rison SC, Thornton JM, Riley M, Gough J, Chothia C . "Small-molecule metabolsim: an enzyme mosaic". trend Biotechnol 19 : 482–6. doi
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Spirin V, Gelfand M, Mironov A, Mirny L . "A metabolic speaks in the evolutionary context: Multiscale organize and modularity"
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metabolism
Lawrence J . "Common gates in the genome strategies of pathogens". Curr Opin Genet Dev 15 : 584–8. doi
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metabolism
Pál C, Papp B, Lercher M, Csermely P, Oliver S, Hurst L . "Chance and necessity in the evolution of borderline metabolic networks". Nature 440 : 667–70. Bibcode
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metabolism
Rennie M . "An introduction to the use of tracers in nutrition and metabolism". Proc Nutr Soc 58 : 935–44. doi
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metabolism
Phair R . "Development of kinetic imitate in the nonlinear multinational of molecular cell biology". metabolism 46 : 1489–95. doi
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Sterck L, Rombauts S, Vandepoele K, Rouzé P, Van de sound Y . "How galore genes are at that place in put ?". Curr Opin Plant Biol 10 : 199–203. doi
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Borodina I, Nielsen J . "From genomes to in silico cells via metabolic networks". Curr Opin Biotechnol 16 : 350–5. doi
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metabolism
Gianchandani E, Brautigan D, Papin J . "Systems investigates known incorporating work of biochemical networks". trend Biochem Sci 31 : 284–91. doi
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metabolism
Duarte NC, Becker SA, Jamshidi N, et al. . "Global reconstruction of the hominid metabolic speaks basing on genomic and bibliomic data"
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metabolism
Goh KI, Cusick ME, Valle D, Childs B, Vidal M, Barabási AL . "The hominid disease network"
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. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 : 8685–90. Bibcode
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metabolism
Lee DS, put J, Kay KA, Christakis NA, Oltvai ZN, Barabási AL . "The implications of hominid metabolic speaks topology for disease comorbidity"
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. PMC
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.  summarized use objects parameters ^
metabolism
Csete M, Doyle J . "Bow ties, metabolism and disease". trend Biotechnol. 22 : 446–50. doi
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Ma HW, Zeng AP . "The connectivity structure, ample strongest component and centrality of metabolic networks". Bioinformatics 19 : 1423–30. doi
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Zhao J, Yu H, Luo JH, Cao ZW, Li YX . "Hierarchical modularity of populate bow-ties in metabolic networks"
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metabolism
Thykaer J, Nielsen J . "Metabolic design of beta-lactam production". Metab Eng 5 : 56–69. doi
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metabolism
Koffas M, Roberge C, Lee K, Stephanopoulos G . "Metabolic engineering". Annu Rev Biomed Eng 1: 535–57. doi
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metabolism
"metabolism"
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. The On-line Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-02-20.  ^
metabolism
Eknoyan G . "Santorio Sanctorius  – opening forms of metabolic match studies". Am J Nephrol 19 : 226–33. doi
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^
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Williams, H. S. A History of Science: in cardinal Volumes. Volume IV: contemporary Development of the chemic and biologic Sciences
metabolism
Harper and Brothers Retrieved on 2007-03-26 ^
metabolism
Dubos J. . "Louis Pasteur: liberate Travel of Science, Gollancz. summarized in Manchester K. L. Louis Pasteur —chance and the educate mind". trend Biotechnol 13 : 511–515. doi
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metabolism
Kinne-Saffran E, Kinne R . "Vitalism and synthesis of urea. From Friedrich Wöhler to Hans A. Krebs". Am J Nephrol 19 : 290–4. doi
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:10.1159/000013463
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metabolism
^
metabolism
Eduard Buchner's 1907 Nobel lecture
metabolism
at http://nobelprize.org
metabolism
recover 2007-03-20 ^
metabolism
Kornberg H . "Krebs and his trinity of cycles". Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1 : 225–8. doi
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metabolism
Krebs HA, Henseleit K . "Untersuchungen über die Harnstoffbildung im tierkorper". Z. Physiol. Chem. 210: 33–66. doi
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:10.1515/bchm2.1932.210.1-2.33
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.  Krebs H, Johnson W . "metabolism of ketonic acids in physical tissues"
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. Biochem J 31 : 645–60. PMC
metabolism
 1266984
metabolism
. PMID
metabolism
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metabolism
.  summarized use objects parameters favor interpret Library resources
metabolism
around metabolism Online books
metabolism
Resources in your library
metabolism
Resources in variant libraries
metabolism

high
Price, N. and Stevens, L., Fundamentals of Enzymology: Cell and Molecular Biology of Catalytic Proteins. , ISBN 0-19-850229-X
metabolism
Berg, J. Tymoczko, J. and Stryer, L., Biochemistry. , ISBN 0-7167-4955-6
metabolism
Cox, M. and Nelson, D. L., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. , ISBN 0-7167-4339-6
metabolism
Brock, T. D.
metabolism
Madigan, M. T. Martinko, J. and Parker J., Brock's Biology of Microorganisms. , ISBN 0-13-066271-2
metabolism
Da Silva, J.J.R.F. and Williams, R. J. P., The biologic Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life. , ISBN 0-19-855598-9
metabolism
Nicholls, D. G. and Ferguson, S. J., Bioenergetics. , ISBN 0-12-518121-3
metabolism
outer think outer think widespread information metabolism, multicellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
metabolism
The vivid Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology at biochemweb.org The Biochemistry of metabolism
metabolism
Advanced physical metabolism Calculators/ synergistic larn Tools
metabolism
Microbial metabolism
metabolism
simplest overview. educate level. Metabolic Pathways of Biochemistry
metabolism
graphic representations of bones metabolic pathways. Chemistry for biologists
metabolism
Introduction to the chemistry of metabolism. educate level. Sparknotes SAT biochemistry
metabolism
Overview of biochemistry. educate level. MIT Biology Hypertextbook
metabolism
Undergraduate-level manipulate to molecular biology. hominid metabolism Topics in Medical Biochemistry
metabolism
manipulate to hominid metabolic pathways. educate level. http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/
metabolism
THE Medical Biochemistry Page] umbrella resource on hominid metabolism. Databases Flow charts of Metabolic Pathways
metabolism
at ExPASy
metabolism
IUBMB-Nicholson Metabolic Pathways Chart
metabolism
SuperCYP: Database for Drug-Cytochrome-metabolism
metabolism
Metabolic pathways Interactive move charts of the bones Metabolic Pathways
metabolism
metabolism write Pathway
metabolism
Guide to Glycolysis
metabolism
educate level. The Nitrogen transit and Nitrogen fixation
metabolism
at the Wayback Machine
metabolism
Downloadable manipulate to photosynthesis
metabolism
educate level. What is Photosynthesis?
metabolism
Collection of photosynthesis indentured and resources.
metabolism
  indentured think to metabolism Biochemical
metabolism
families
metabolism
: carbohydrates
metabolism
alcohols
metabolism
glycoproteins
metabolism
glycosides
metabolism
lipids
metabolism
eicosanoids
metabolism
fatty acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
phospholipids
metabolism
sphingolipids
metabolism
steroids
metabolism
nucleic acids
metabolism
constituents
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
proteins
metabolism
Amino acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
tetrapyrroles
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism widespread Metabolic pathway
metabolism
Metabolic network
metabolism
Primary nutritionary groups
metabolism
Energy metabolism
metabolism
Aerobic respiration
metabolism
Glycolysis
metabolism
Pyruvate Decarboxylation
metabolism
Citric harsh cycle
metabolism
Oxidative phosphorylation
metabolism
Anaerobic respiration
metabolism
Electron acceptors are variant than oxygen Fermentation
metabolism
Glycolysis
metabolism
Substrate-level phosphorylation
metabolism
ABE
metabolism
Ethanol
metabolism
Lactic acid
metabolism
special paths Protein metabolism
metabolism
Protein synthesis
metabolism
Catabolism
metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
hominid Glycolysis
metabolism
Gluconeogenesis
metabolism
Glycogenolysis
metabolism
Glycogenesis
metabolism
Pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
Fructolysis
metabolism
Galactolysis
metabolism
Glycosylation
metabolism
N-linked
metabolism
O-linked
metabolism
anthropoid Photosynthesis
metabolism
Anoxygenic photosynthesis
metabolism
Chemosynthesis
metabolism
Carbon fixation
metabolism
Xylose metabolism
metabolism
Lipid metabolism
metabolism
Fatty harsh metabolism
metabolism
Fatty harsh degradation
metabolism
Fatty harsh synthesis
metabolism
variant Steroid metabolism
metabolism
Sphingolipid metabolism
metabolism
Eicosanoid metabolism
metabolism
Ketosis
metabolism
Amino acid
metabolism
Amino harsh synthesis
metabolism
Urea cycle
metabolism
Nucleotide metabolism Purine metabolism
metabolism
Nucleotide salvage
metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
metabolism
variant Metal metabolism
metabolism
Iron metabolism
metabolism
Ethanol metabolism
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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m , i
Biochemical
metabolism
families
metabolism
: carbohydrates
metabolism
alcohols
metabolism
glycoproteins
metabolism
glycosides
metabolism
lipids
metabolism
eicosanoids
metabolism
fatty acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
phospholipids
metabolism
sphingolipids
metabolism
steroids
metabolism
nucleic acids
metabolism
constituents
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
proteins
metabolism
Amino acids
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
tetrapyrroles
metabolism
/ intermediates
metabolism
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
: glycolysis
metabolism
/gluconeogenesis
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Glycolysis Hexokinase
metabolism
→/Glucose 6-phosphatase
metabolism
Glucose isomerase
metabolism
Phosphofructokinase 1
metabolism
→/Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase
metabolism
Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase
metabolism
Triosephosphate isomerase
metabolism
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Phosphoglycerate kinase
metabolism
Phosphoglycerate mutase
metabolism
Enolase
metabolism
Pyruvate kinase
metabolism
Gluconeogenesis single to oxaloacetate
metabolism
: Pyruvate carboxylase
metabolism
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
metabolism
from lactate
metabolism
: Lactate dehydrogenase
metabolism
from alanine
metabolism
: Alanine transaminase
metabolism
from glycerol
metabolism
: Glycerol kinase
metabolism
Glycerol dehydrogenase
metabolism
inhibitory Fructose 6-P,2-kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase
metabolism
PFKFB1
metabolism
, PFKFB2
metabolism
, PFKFB3
metabolism
, PFKFB4
metabolism
Bisphosphoglycerate mutase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
/s
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
· pentose phosphate pathway
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
aerobiotic Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
6-phosphogluconolactonase
metabolism
Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
metabolism
nonoxidative Phosphopentose isomerase
metabolism
Phosphopentose epimerase
metabolism
Transketolase
metabolism
Transaldolase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
fructose
metabolism
and galactose
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Fructose
metabolism
/ Fructolysis
metabolism
Hepatic fructokinase
metabolism
Aldolase B
metabolism
Triokinase
metabolism
Sorbitol
metabolism
Sorbitol dehydrogenase
metabolism
Aldose reductase
metabolism
Galactose
metabolism
/ Galactolysis
metabolism
Galactokinase
metabolism
Galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase
metabolism
/UDP-glucose 4-epimerase
metabolism
Aldose reductase
metabolism
Lactose
metabolism
Lactose synthase
metabolism
Lactase
metabolism
Mannose
metabolism
Mannose phosphate isomerase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
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metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
 · proteoglycan
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
glycosaminoglycan
metabolism
anabolism
Heparan sulfate
metabolism
: EXT1
metabolism
 · EXT2
metabolism

Chondroitin sulfate
metabolism
: PAPSS1
metabolism
 · PAPSS2
metabolism
glycosaminoglycan
metabolism
catabolism Hunter
metabolism
, Hurler
metabolism
Iduronate-2-sulfatase
metabolism
 · Iduronidase
metabolism
Sanfilippo
metabolism
, Sly
metabolism
Heparan sulfamidase
metabolism
 · N-acetyltransferase
metabolism
 · Alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase
metabolism
 · Glucuronidase
metabolism
 · N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase
metabolism
Morquio
metabolism
/Maroteaux-Lamy
metabolism
Arylsulfatase B
metabolism
 · Galactosamine-6 sulfatase
metabolism
 · Beta-galactosidase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
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metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: carbohydrate metabolism
metabolism
· glycoprotein
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Anabolism Dolichol kinase
metabolism
GCS1
metabolism
Oligosaccharyltransferase
metabolism
Catabolism Neuraminidase
metabolism
Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Hexosaminidase
metabolism
mannosidase
metabolism
alpha-Mannosidase
metabolism
beta-mannosidase
metabolism
Aspartylglucosaminidase
metabolism
Fucosidase
metabolism
NAGA
metabolism
buses SLC17A5
metabolism
M6P
metabolism
stick N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
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metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
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metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
 · glycolipid
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Sphingolipid
metabolism
To glycosphingolipid
metabolism
Glycosyltransferase
metabolism
 · Sulfotransferase
metabolism
To ceramide
metabolism
From ganglioside
metabolism
: Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Hexosaminidase A
metabolism
Neuraminidase
metabolism
Glucocerebrosidase
metabolism
From globoside
metabolism
: Hexosaminidase B
metabolism
Alpha-galactosidase
metabolism
Beta-galactosidase
metabolism
Glucocerebrosidase
metabolism
From sphingomyelin
metabolism
: Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase
metabolism
From sulfatide
metabolism
: Arylsulfatase A
metabolism
Galactosylceramidase
metabolism
To sphingosine
metabolism
Ceramidase
metabolism
ACER1
metabolism
ACER2
metabolism
ACER3
metabolism
ASAH1
metabolism
ASAH2
metabolism
ASAH2B
metabolism
ASAH2C
metabolism
variant Sphingosine kinase
metabolism
NCL
metabolism
Palmitoyl protein thioesterase
metabolism
Tripeptidyl peptidase I
metabolism
CLN3
metabolism
CLN5
metabolism
CLN6
metabolism
CLN8
metabolism
Ceramide synthesis
metabolism
Serine C-palmitoyltransferase
metabolism
Ceramide glucosyltransferase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
- eicosanoid
metabolism
metabolism enzymes
metabolism
Precursor Phospholipase A2
metabolism
Phospholipase C
metabolism
Diacylglycerol lipase
metabolism
Prostanoids
metabolism
Cyclooxygenase
metabolism
PTGS1
metabolism
PTGS2
metabolism
PGD2 synthase
metabolism
PGE synthase
metabolism
Prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase
metabolism
PGI2 synthase
metabolism
TXA synthase
metabolism
Leukotrienes
metabolism
5-Lipoxygenase initiate protein
metabolism
/Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
metabolism
LTA4 hydrolase
metabolism
LTC4 synthase
metabolism
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
metabolism
DPEP2
metabolism
Ungrouped HPGD
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
/ fatty harsh metabolism
metabolism
, triglyceride
metabolism
and fatty acid
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Synthesis Malonyl-CoA
metabolism
synthesis ATP change state lyase
metabolism
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Fatty harsh synthesis
metabolism
/ Fatty harsh synthase
metabolism
Beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase
metabolism
Β-Ketoacyl ACP reductase
metabolism
3-Hydroxyacyl ACP dehydrase
metabolism
Enoyl ACP reductase
metabolism
adipose harsh desaturases
metabolism
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1
metabolism
Triacyl glycerol Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Thiokinase
metabolism
Degradation
metabolism
Acyl transport
metabolism
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I
metabolism
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase
metabolism
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II
metabolism
Beta oxidation
metabolism
widespread Acyl CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
Enoyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
MTP
metabolism
: HADH
metabolism
HADHA
metabolism
HADHB
metabolism
Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase
metabolism
Unsaturated
metabolism
Enoyl CoA isomerase
metabolism
2,4 Dienoyl-CoA reductase
metabolism
Odd chain
metabolism
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
variant Hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase
metabolism
To acetyl-CoA
metabolism
Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase
metabolism
Aldehydes
metabolism
Long-chain-aldehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: lipid metabolism
metabolism
ketones
metabolism
/cholesterol
metabolism
synthesis enzymes
metabolism
/steroid metabolism
metabolism
Mevalonate pathway
metabolism
To HMG-CoA
metabolism
Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase
metabolism
HMG-CoA synthase
metabolism
Ketogenesis
metabolism
HMG-CoA lyase
metabolism
3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Thiophorase
metabolism
To Mevalonic acid
metabolism
HMG-CoA reductase
metabolism
To DMAPP
metabolism
Mevalonate kinase
metabolism
Phosphomevalonate kinase
metabolism
Pyrophosphomevalonate decarboxylase
metabolism
Isopentenyl-diphosphate delta isomerase
metabolism
Geranyl- Dimethylallyltranstransferase
metabolism
Geranyl pyrophosphate
metabolism
To cholesterol
metabolism
To lanosterol
metabolism
Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
metabolism
Squalene monooxygenase
metabolism
Lanosterol synthase
metabolism
7-Dehydrocholesterol
metabolism
path Lanosterol 14α-demethylase
metabolism
Sterol-C5-desaturase-like
metabolism
7-Dehydrocholesterol reductase
metabolism
Desmosterol
metabolism
path 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase
metabolism
To Bile acids
metabolism
Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase
metabolism
Sterol 27-hydroxylase
metabolism
Steroidogenesis
metabolism
To pregnenolone
metabolism
Side-chain cleavage
metabolism
To corticosteroids
metabolism
aldosterone
metabolism
: 18-hydroxylase
metabolism
cortisol
metabolism
/cortisone
metabolism
: 17α-hydroxylase
metabolism
11β dehydrogenase
metabolism
HSD11B1
metabolism
HSD11B2
metabolism
both: 3β dehydrogenase
metabolism
21α-hydroxylase
metabolism
11β-hydroxylase
metabolism
To sex hormones
metabolism
To androgens
metabolism
17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
metabolism
3β dehydrogenase
metabolism
17β dehydrogenase
metabolism
5α reductase
metabolism
1
metabolism
2
metabolism
To estrogens
metabolism
Aromatase
metabolism
Other/ungrouped Steroid metabolism
metabolism
: sulfatase
metabolism
Steroid sulfatase
metabolism
sulfotransferase
metabolism
SULT1A1
metabolism
SULT2A1
metabolism
Steroidogenic subacute inhibitory protein
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
anat
metabolism
/phys
metabolism
/devp
metabolism
/horm
metabolism

proc
metabolism
, drug
metabolism

v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · synthesis
metabolism
and catabolism enzymes
metabolism
K
metabolism
acetyl-CoA
metabolism
LYSINE
metabolism
Saccharopine dehydrogenase
metabolism
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
LEUCINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
Isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase
metabolism
Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase
metabolism
TRYPTOPHAN
metabolism
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
metabolism
/Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase
metabolism
Arylformamidase
metabolism
Kynureninase
metabolism
3-hydroxyanthranilate oxidase
metabolism
Aminocarboxymuconate-semialdehyde decarboxylase
metabolism
Aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism
PHENYLALANINE
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
G
metabolism
G→pyruvate
metabolism
citrate
metabolism
glycine
metabolism
serine
metabolism
Serine hydroxymethyltransferase
metabolism
Serine dehydratase
metabolism
glycine
metabolism
creatine
metabolism
: Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
metabolism
Creatine kinase
metabolism
alanine
metabolism
Alanine transaminase
metabolism
cysteine
metabolism
D-cysteine desulfhydrase
metabolism
threonine
metabolism
L-threonine dehydrogenase
metabolism
G→glutamate
metabolism
α-ketoglutarate
metabolism
HISTIDINE
metabolism
Histidine ammonia-lyase
metabolism
Urocanate hydratase
metabolism
Formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase
metabolism
proline
metabolism
Proline oxidase
metabolism
Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase
metabolism
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase
metabolism
/ALDH4A1
metabolism
PYCR1
metabolism
arginine
metabolism
Ornithine aminotransferase
metabolism
Ornithine decarboxylase
metabolism
Agmatinase
metabolism
alpha-ketoglutarate
metabolism
→TCA Glutamate dehydrogenase
metabolism
variant cysteine
metabolism
+glutamate
metabolism
glutathione
metabolism
: Gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase
metabolism
Glutathione synthetase
metabolism
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
metabolism
glutamate
metabolism
glutamine
metabolism
: Glutamine synthetase
metabolism
Glutaminase
metabolism
G→propionyl-CoA
metabolism
succinyl-CoA
metabolism
VALINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
Enoyl-CoA hydratase
metabolism
3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase
metabolism
3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase
metabolism
Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
metabolism
ISOLEUCINE
metabolism
Branched arrange aminotransferase
metabolism
Branched-chain alpha-keto harsh dehydrogenase complex
metabolism
3-hydroxy-2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase
metabolism
METHIONINE
metabolism
generation of homocysteine
metabolism
: Methionine adenosyltransferase
metabolism
Adenosylhomocysteinase
metabolism
regeneration of methionine
metabolism
: Methionine synthase
metabolism
/Homocysteine methyltransferase
metabolism
Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase
metabolism
conversion to cysteine
metabolism
: Cystathionine important synthase
metabolism
Cystathionine gamma-lyase
metabolism
THREONINE
metabolism
Threonine aldolase
metabolism
succinyl-CoA
metabolism
→TCA Propionyl-CoA carboxylase
metabolism
Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase
metabolism
Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
metabolism
G→fumarate
metabolism
PHENYLALANINE
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
Phenylalanine hydroxylase
metabolism
Tyrosine aminotransferase
metabolism
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase
metabolism
Homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
metabolism
Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
melanin
metabolism
: Tyrosinase
metabolism
G→oxaloacetate
metabolism
asparagine
metabolism
aspartate
metabolism
Asparaginase
metabolism
/Asparagine synthetase
metabolism
Aspartate transaminase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
- urea cycle
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
important transit mitochondrial matrix
metabolism
: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
metabolism
Ornithine transcarbamylase
metabolism
cytosol
metabolism
: Argininosuccinate synthetase
metabolism
Argininosuccinate lyase
metabolism
Arginase
metabolism
Regulatory/transport N-Acetylglutamate synthase
metabolism
Ornithine translocase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · neurotransmitter
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
monoamine
metabolism
histidine
metabolism
histamine
metabolism
anabolism: Histidine decarboxylase
metabolism
catabolism: Histamine N-methyltransferase
metabolism
 · Amine oxidase
metabolism
tyrosine
metabolism
dopamine
metabolism
epinephrine
metabolism
anabolism: Tyrosine hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Aromatic L-amino harsh decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Dopamine important hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
metabolism
catabolism: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
metabolism
 · Monoamine oxidase
metabolism
glutamate
metabolism
GABA
metabolism
anabolism: Glutamate decarboxylase
metabolism
catabolism: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase
metabolism
tryptophan
metabolism
serotonin
metabolism
melatonin
metabolism
Tryptophan hydroxylase
metabolism
 · Aromatic L-amino harsh decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase
metabolism
arginine
metabolism
NO
metabolism
Nitric oxide synthase
metabolism
" title="Nitric oxide synthase 2 ">NOS2
metabolism
, NOS3
metabolism
) choline
metabolism
Acetylcholine
metabolism
anabolism: Choline acetyltransferase
metabolism
catabolism: Cholinesterase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · nucleotide
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Purine metabolism
metabolism
Anabolism
IMP->AMP
metabolism
: Adenylosuccinate synthase
metabolism
 · Adenylosuccinate lyase
metabolism
 · improved
IMP->GMP
metabolism
: IMP dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · GMP synthase
metabolism
 · improved Nucleotide salvage
metabolism
Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
metabolism
 · Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
metabolism
Catabolism Adenosine deaminase
metabolism
 · Purine nucleoside phosphorylase
metabolism
 · Guanine deaminase
metabolism
 · Xanthine oxidase
metabolism
 · Urate oxidase
metabolism
Pyrimidine metabolism
metabolism
Anabolism
Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · Orotidine 5'-phosphate decarboxylase
metabolism
/Uridine monophosphate synthetase
metabolism

CTP synthase
metabolism
Catabolism Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase
metabolism
 · Dihydropyrimidinase
metabolism
/DPYS
metabolism
 · Beta-ureidopropionase
metabolism
/UPB1
metabolism
Deoxyribonucleotides
metabolism
Ribonucleotide reductase
metabolism
 · Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase
metabolism
 · DCMP deaminase
metabolism
 · Thymidylate synthase
metabolism
 · Dihydrofolate reductase
metabolism

mt
metabolism
, k
metabolism
, c
metabolism
/g
metabolism
/r
metabolism
/p
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, a
metabolism
/u
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism

m , i
v
metabolism
t
metabolism
e
metabolism
metabolism: amino harsh metabolism
metabolism
 · porphyrin
metabolism
/heme
metabolism
enzymes
metabolism
Porphyrin biosynthesis
metabolism

cytosolic: Porphobilinogen deaminase
metabolism
 · Uroporphyrinogen III synthase
metabolism
 · Uroporphyrinogen III decarboxylase
metabolism
 · Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase
metabolism

recently mitochondrial: Protoporphyrinogen oxidase
metabolism
 · Ferrochelatase
metabolism
Heme degradation
metabolism
to bile
metabolism

M
metabolism
: MET
metabolism

k
metabolism
, cgrp
metabolism
/y
metabolism
/i
metabolism
, f
metabolism
/h
metabolism
/s
metabolism
/l
metabolism
/o
metabolism
/e
metabolism
, au
metabolism
, n
metabolism
, m
metabolism
, epon
metabolism

M
metabolism
: MYL
metabolism

rbmg
metabolism
/mogr
metabolism
/tumr
metabolism
/hist
metabolism
, sysi
metabolism
/epon
metabolism
, btst
metabolism

M
metabolism
: NUT
metabolism

noco
metabolism
, nuvi
metabolism
, sysi
metabolism
/epon
metabolism
, met
metabolism